Between conflict and cooperation

The growing complexity of our society appears to involve conflicts and cooperation of all sorts and at every level. Conflicts differ in all sorts of ways, for example in their intensity, duration and history, the form they take, the parties affected, the subjects concerned and the means involved. Cooperation differs in similar ways. The public, policymakers, social workers, care providers, teachers, politicians and diplomats all have urgent questions about how best to handle disputes, how to identify causes, how to limit the damage, and how to promote constructive solutions.

Overview of initiatives for this route

BCC.1901 The ecosystem of financial fraud and the private public partnership

Keywords

Poublic private networks; financial economic ecosystems; cultural dynamics

Initiator

Prof. dr. I. (Issy) Drori

Organisation of the initiator(s)

VU University, dept. Organization Sciences

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators 

Prof. dr. M. Veenswijk

Other organisations involved

Ministry of Finance, FIOD, ABNAMRO, Deloitte Forensics

Main research question

How do public-private partnership shapes the ecosystem of financial fraud?

Description

In recent years we are witnessing a renewed global attention to financial frauds, money laundry and financial cybercrime. PWC's 2018 Global Economic Crimes and Fraud survey finds that 49% of global organization say they've experienced economic crime in the past two years. The financial frauds are prevalence in all industries and is committing by both internal actors and external perpetrators with highly damaging impact on the organization, its business relations and employees. Recent research on ecosystems of financial fraud describes the scale and nature of the phenomenon, but scholars have not studied the processes that underline the role of public-private partnership in the emergence of financial ecosystem that normalize kleptocracy and at the same time combating it. The emergence of the financial fraud ecosystem shape the structure of relations among key ecosystem members and set the ground for law enforcement agencies and financial institutions to engage in collaborative activities. This proposed research project is a collaboration between the academia (VU, Amsterdam) and actors in the financial field (ABN AMRO, the FIOD, Delloite). We will use the case of the Dutch financial sector to introduce a grounded theory for understanding how law enforcement agencies, financial institutions and financial consultants interact, and shape the financial fraud ecosystem. Understanding the critical process of how the financial fraud ecosystem is shaped by public-private partnership may set the ground for formulating innovative strategy and policy to combat financial frauds. Our conceptual framework is centred on the construct of ecosystem. An ecosystem refers to the alignment structure of the multilateral set of partners that need to interact in order for a focal value proposition to materialize, which conceptualizes the ecosystem as a community of affiliated actors defined by their networks and the dynamic nature of their partnership.

Contact information

Prof. dr. I. (Issy) Drori
E-mail: i.drori@vu.nl

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BCC.1902 Improving governance and legitimacy of regional authorities through multi stakeholder partnerships including business: the case of infrastructure building in Goma, Eastern DRC

Keywords

Governance; Fragility; Corporate Social Responsibility; Conflict; Public-private partnership

Initiator

Dr. F. (Francois) Lenfant

Organisation of the initiator(s)

University of Amsterdam

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Dr. Westermann-Behaylo (UvA), Dr Nene Morisho (Pole Institute)

Other organisations involved

Pole institute

Main research question

How, and to what extent, does a multi stakeholder partnership contribute to improving citizen-government relationship and to enhance government legitimacy?

Description

The DRC has been the theatre of violence for many decades, especially in the Eastern provinces. At the root, and as a consequence, of the violence, lie the absence of accountable and legitimate state institutions. Citizens of Goma, the capital of the North Kivu province, have condemned the insecurity that has plagued their city for many years, as well as the absence of proper infrastructure, such as roads, which has seriously undermined the credibility of local authorities. The bad state of the roads hampered citizens' mobility, and made the pursuance of economic activities difficult. Recently, the governor of the province decided to improve the infrastructure of the city of Goma through a multistakeholder scheme, including the private sector. The government agreed to the setting up of a fund financed through a 0.1 USD increase in fuel price that was managed by a multi stakeholder consortium which improved road conditions. This partnership is unique on two accounts. First it did not require any foreign intervention, and hence, has been closely followed by officials from other provinces (for instance, Lualaba and South Kivu) with the goal to replicate the scheme as to improve infrastructure in their own provinces and gain credibility among citizens. Second, this partnership involved government and local business representatives (i.e. from the local Chamber of Commerce) and thus highlights the positive role that private, non-state actors, other than NGOs, can play in contributing to stability and in improving state society relations. The project will look at how such a multistakeholder partnership involving business has improved the legitimacy of the government in an area marked by conflicts and a history of violence.

Contact information

Dr. F. (Francois) Lenfant
E-mail: f.lenfant@uva.nl
Website: https://www.uva.nl/en/profile/l/e/f.lenfant/f.lenfant.html

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BCC.1903 Between conflict and cooperation in supervision

Keywords

Supervision; regulations; enforcement; compliance; motivations

Initiator

Prof. dr. H. (Henri) Dekker

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. dr. J. (Jacco) Wielhouwer (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Other organisations involved

Autoriteit Consument & Markt (ACM)

Main research question

How can supervisory bodies balance deterrence-based and cooperation-based supervision approaches to enhance firm compliance?

Description

A fundamental question that supervisory bodies face is how to supervise and enforce regulations to efficiently achieve high compliance. While traditionally a conflict approach was common (cops versus robbers), nowadays other ways of supervision are promoted, such as cooperative compliance programs between supervisors and supervised firms. Modern views on this question suggest that supervisors need to find a balance between deterrence-based and cooperative approaches, which can involve customization of supervisory approach to type(s) of firms. Such customization requires understanding of firms' contexts, characteristics and motivations, as well as their response to alternative supervisory approaches. We propose to examine antecedents of firms' compliance with regulations and the effects of different supervisory approaches on compliance behavior. The project will involve a collaboration between the VU Amsterdam and the Autoriteit Consument & Markt (ACM), and will use multiple complementary research methods. In-depth analyses of several large regulated firms will be used to assess internal firm factors associated with compliance behavior, including structural (e.g., internal compliance practices, delegation, monitoring, rewarding practices) and cultural factors (e.g., tone at the top, social norms, compliance culture). This will be complemented with survey data to assess how perceptions of regulatory approaches differ and relate to factors known to explain firms' compliance, as well as the supervisor's perceptions of compliance (e.g., based on signals from customers and employees with regular contact to the firm). The data will be obtained in settings where non-compliance involves elements such as preferential treatments of associated parties, information exchange with competitors, price agreements, and market division agreements. Finally, field experiments (differentiating regulatory intervention) may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different supervisory approaches to influence compliance behavior.

Contact information

Prof. dr. H. (Henri) Dekker
E-mail: h.c.dekker@vu.nl
Website: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/hc-dekker

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BCC.1904 Harmful cooperation: Determinants of dissatisfaction of European citizens, consumers, and workers from an economic perspective

Keywords

Harmful cooperation; European Union; dissatisfaction; decision making procedures

Initiator

Dr. Ir. A. (Andrés) Perea

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Maastricht University

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

I. (Iwan) Bos (Maastricht University); M. (Melvyn) Hamstra (Maastricht University); C. (Clemens) Kool (Maastricht University); A. (Arkadi) Predtetchinski (Maastricht University)

Main research question

How can the dissatisfaction of European citizens, consumers and workers resulting from harmful cooperation be reduced?

Description

Often, cooperation between parties at a higher level may have real, or perceived, harmful effects for parties at a lower level. In this project we focus on such harmful effects within the European Union, where the cooperation between countries or firms may have harmful effects for citizens, consumers and workers. The main questions we wish to answer are: How can the dissatisfaction of European citizens, consumers and workers resulting from harmful cooperation be reduced? And how can existing decision-making procedures be reformed to achieve this goal? To answer these questions, we first will indentify the main causes for the dissatisfaction of European citizens, consumers and workers. We then investigate to what extent the (dis)satisfaction of citizens, consumers and workers depends on the result of decision making procedures, to what extent it depends on the decision making procedures themselves, and what the role of information flows is. These questions will be explored from a macro-, meso- and micro-level, using principles from macro-economics, industrial economics, micro-economics and game theory.

Contact information

Dr. Ir. A. (Andrés) Perea
E-mail: a.perea@maastrichtuniversity.nl
Website: http://www.epicenter.name/Perea/

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BCC.1905 Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Monitor

Keywords

Cybercrime; cybersecurity; criminology; victimology; big data; victims; offenders

Initiator

PhD. R. (Rutger) Leukfeldt

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

PhD. E. (Elke) Moons (Statistics Netherlands); prof. A. (Antony) Pemberton (Tilburg University)

Main research question

Scientific breakthroughs that are expected from this research will not only provide insights about the dark number of cybercrime (and also into offenders, why do they do it; who becomes a victim, how often; what security measures help to get individuals/companies resilient against possible attacks, etc.) but also to finally gain insight into the different cause-and-effect relationships. Furthermore, the unique longitudinal data this project will deliver is used to test and adjust existing criminological theory that tries to explain both criminality and victimization.

Description

Scientific breakthroughs that are expected from this research will not only provide insights about the dark number of cybercrime (and also into offenders, why do they do it; who becomes a victim, how often; what security measures help to get individuals/companies resilient against possible attacks, etc.) but also to finally gain insight into the different cause-and-effect relationships. Furthermore, the unique longitudinal data this project will deliver is used to test and adjust existing criminological theory that tries to explain both criminality and victimization.

Contact information

PhD. R. (Rutger) Leukfeldt
E-mail: rleukfeldt@nscr.nl
Website: www.nscr.nl

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BCC.1906 International Cooperation and Conflict The Micro-Dynamics of Macro-Fluctuations

Keywords

International order; power transition; conflict and cooperation; concept development; metrics; data science; machine learning; international relations

Initiator

Prof. dr. R. (Rob) de Wijk

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Institute of Security and Global Affairs, University of Leiden

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. Dr. Jaap van den Herik (Faculty of Science and Faculty of Law, University of Leiden, Chair of the Board of Directors of the Leiden Centre of Data Science (LCDS)); Prof. Dr. Frans Osinga (Netherlands Defence Academy); Dr. Tim Sweijs and Stephan De Spiegeleire (The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies)

Other organisations involved

Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Dutch Ministry of Defence; Institute for Economics and Peace; Pardee Center for International Futures; Center for International Strategy Technology and Policy; Georgia Institute of Technology.

Main research question

What are the theoretical and empirical micro foundations of macro fluctuations in international cooperation and conflict?

Description

The international system is experiencing a fundamental transition caused by the multi-level redistribution of power with significant ramifications for the international order that regulates and shapes state behavior. Historically, power transitions have been accompanied by friction between states, increasing the chance of conflict. The scholarship on power transition typically distinguishes between the leading state and the main challenger(s) on the basis of system-level theoretical models and country-year data to examine pathways to war. While the relationship between power transition and war is empirically mixed, extant scholarship sheds scant light on the deeper underlying patterns of international cooperation and conflict. Except for some high-level measurements of economic and political forms of cooperation and conflict, it fails to provide metrics of many other micro-dynamics of international cooperation and conflict. An empirical and theoretical reinvestigation of international cooperation and conflict is relevant not only because it allows us to better assess pathways to war and peace across the international system, but also because it captures the nature and intensity of various forms of cooperation and conflict between war and peace. The emergence of new data and tools provide unprecedented opportunities to examine the black box and reach a more granular understanding of the micro-foundations of international cooperation and conflict. This project designs new metrics of international cooperation and conflict across domains and between different types of actors by leveraging new - both historical and contemporary - number- and text-based datasets. It investigates the micro-foundations of macro-fluctuations in cooperation and conflict temporally, geographically and functionally. It implements a mixed-method approach combining text- and datamining methods, machine-learning algorithms, and qualitative analytical techniques, to come up with an empirically grounded concept of cooperation and conflict.

Contact information

Prof. dr. R. (Rob) de Wijk
E-mail: r.de.wijk@fgga.leidenuniv.nl
Website: https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/staffmembers/rob-de-wijk/publications#tab-1

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BCC.1907 Reasons to litigate and dispute resolution in tax law

Keywords

Tax disputes; litigation; dispute resolution; appeal; legal protection; preventing disputes

Initiator

Prof. dr. mr. M.B.A. (Diana) van Hout

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Radboud University

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Dr. A.K.J.M. van Steenbergen (Tilburg University), Prof. dr. M.B.A. van Hout (Radboud University), Prof. dr. G. van Rijssen (Radboud University)

Main research question

What are the most important reasons for Dutch taxpayers to litigate in tax law? and to what extent is it possible to prevent these appeals procedures or solve them more efficiently?

Description

The Netherlands seems to have an extraordinary number of tax disputes compared to what is common in other Western countries. According to the annual accounts of the Council for the Judiciary, the Dutch tax courts receive approximately 26.500 tax cases per year in relation to 17 million inhabitants. In the United States, the Tax Court receives approximately 30.000 tax cases per year (300 million inhabitants), the Tax Court in Canada 5.500 cases (37 million inhabitants) and in Belgium the courts receive fewer than 2.000 tax litigation cases per year (11 million inhabitants). Furthermore, the number of litigations in the Netherlands regarding national taxes seems to increase every year. When comparing the year 2009 to 2018, the number of litigation cases increased with almost 60%. These developments can jeopardize access to justice and the system of legal protection. Since the 1990s, the Dutch tax administration and judiciary have started several pilots to decrease the number of tax disputes. None of these initiatives seem to have been very successful. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a research regarding the most important reasons for taxpayers to litigate in tax law in the Netherlands. If there is a better understanding of the reasons for appealing, then it is also possible to improve dispute resolution procedures, to create more efficiency, and to mitigate the number of tax disputes. This should be an empirical and multi-disciplinary research because currently different scientific fields have different views regarding the reasons why taxpayers litigate. For example, social scientists believe that taxpayers appeal due to a lack of knowledge and (almost) free legal aid. Fiscal scholars however, believe that taxpayers appeal due to the adversarial tax legislation that encourages litigation. This should be researched in more detail in order to prevent litigation or deal with tax disputes more efficiently.

Contact information

Prof. dr. mr. M.B.A. (Diana) van Hout
E-mail: m.vanhout@jur.ru.nl
Website: https://www.ru.nl/personen/hout-m-b-van/

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BCC.1908 Early warning in a changing security context: a critical reflection and guidance for the future

Keywords

Early warning; conflict prevention

Initiator

Prof. dr. ir. G. (Georg) Frerks

Organisation of the initiator(s)

University of Utrecht

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. dr. ir. S. (Sebastiaan) Rietjens (Netherlands Defence Academy); Dr. T. (Tim) Sweijs (The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies)

Other organisations involved

University of Tilburg; Netherlands Ministry of Defence

Main research question

To what extent and how are existing early warning mechanisms able to cope with the multifaceted contextual changes?

Description

Being an important part of the conflict prevention toolbox, early warning aims to predict and inform decision makers and affected populations on the outbreak, escalation and resurgence of violent conflict and the emerging opportunities for peace. The changing security context, societal developments as well as rapid technological innovation, however, severely challenge the functioning and effectiveness of early warning mechanisms. These challenges include but are not limited to the selection of indicators, integrating high level country data with in-depth local knowledge, when and how to communicate the warning to policymakers, the western centric focus and the reliance on single method approaches. This makes it important to reconsider whether existing early warning mechanisms are still relevant, and if so, to what extent and how they are able to cope with such an evolving context. To contribute to this, the proposed research identifies and critically studies four main themes. The first theme concerns the what of early warning. It scrutinizes dominant focal points of early warning and identifies blind spots in existing practices. The second theme evolves around the how of early warning. It critically reflects on the methods, techniques and processes that are used in anticipation including the cooperation between the various actors (public-private, international-local, whole of government) that are involved in developing early warning products. The third research theme concerns the ways in which early warning products are utilized and looks closer at the various aspects associated with the warning - response gap. The fourth and final theme deals with the question of how to design meaningful interventions and focuses at bridging the gap between predicting an event (often based on big data) and explaining the drivers and dynamics so that meaningful policy interventions can be designed.

Contact information

Prof. dr. ir. G. (Georg) Frerks
E-mail: g.frerks@uu.nl

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BCC.1909 De-Polarizing: From Conflict to Empathic Dialogue

Keywords

Dialogue; Empathy; Polarization; Otherness; Conflict; Round table; Reflective equilibrium

Initiator

Prof. dr. D.-M. (Dirk-Martin) Grube

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Religion and Theology

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Ms. B. (Birgit) Pfeifer, Practoraat Verschillen Waarderen Federatie Christelijk MBO

Main research question

How do empathic dialogues minimize polarization?

Description

Societies in The Netherlands and elsewhere polarize. The differences between political, religious and cultural views of life have reached a level that jeopardizes the cohesion of society. Empathic dialogues (EDs) are a way to de-polarize the relationship between the different views. EDs are dialogues in which the conflicting parties stand in each other's shoes, exchange perspectives. Their purpose is to understand the other perspective in a deep sense and to reflect critically on one's own perspective. However, the goal of EDs is not to take over the other perspective nor to create agreement between the conflicting parties but to minimize the deconstructive potential inherent in conflicts. EDs help develop a basic attitude, a consciousness, that is open to and respectful of Otherness. This project aims at a reflective equilibrium between theory and practice: practical experience is reflected upon in light of theory (on empathy and dialogue) and practicalized again. Theoretically relevant questions concern the characteristics of EDs (what distinguishes EDs from discussions?), how they change basic attitudes (towards Otherness) and how this change of attitude changes behavior. Practically relevant questions are how ED-related traits (e.g. the ability to listen carefully and to - temporarily - suspend judgment) can by maximized, how obstacles professionals encounter in EDs can be overcome (e.g. by training dialogue management), how to create ED-conducive (trustful) environments, etc. This project's purpose is to create a (nationally available) center of expertise that reflects on the concept of ED in theoretical terms and puts it into practice. This center's task is to provide education, supervision and practical help for professionals who intend to set up EDs in schools, local communities, sport-clubs, religious/health care organizations, etc. It is accessible to professionals, politicians, managers who plan EDs (e.g. round tables in conflict situations) and/or wish to transform existing dialogues into EDs.

Contact information

Prof. dr. D.-M. (Dirk-Martin) Grube
E-mail: d.m.k.h.grube@vu.nl
Website: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/dmkh-grube

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BCC.1910 Religion and politics in post-Soviet countries. Developing strategies for conflict and cooperation in post-Soviet space by researching the role of religion

Keywords

Post-Soviet countries; religion & politics; transitional justice; contested past; Dutch politics and diplomacy; Russia; Ukraine

Initiator

Dr. E.V. (Eline) Tolstoj (director Institute for the Academic Study of Eastern Christianity (INaSEC), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Main research question

How can research of religion in post-Soviet countries help to negotiate internal, bilateral and global conflicts, in particular for the benefit of Dutch cultural and diplomatic policies towards these countries?

Description

Our project explores the relation between religion and politics in post-Soviet countries. Religion is a key player in these countries that reflects societal tendencies and mentalities. Religion also has increasing geopolitical weight. Given the importance of Dutch relationships with post-Soviet countries, primarily Russia, it is striking that there is no structured research into the connections between religion and (geo)politics in these contexts. A programmatic research could provide a major think-tank and source of information for science and knowledge valorisation as well as for future political, cultural and diplomatic policies. 'Conflict and cooperation' is an excellent frame for structuring such research. The term 'conflict' in our project refers to the ways the totalitarian past impacts on these countries' present, how it is negotiated, and what role the revival of religion after decades of state atheism plays here. The contested past leads to conflicts within and among these countries (the war between Russia and Ukraine is the clearest example) and to tensions with the Netherlands and Europe. In these conflicts religion is often coopted. Conversely, religion has a potential to stimulate peace processes. Our multidisciplinary project has three spearheads: (1) Mapping groups and internal power relations within Orthodoxy, Islam and Judaism and their connections to politics and to other religious groups and institutions. (2) Analysing the role of religion on macro-, meso- and microlevel. (3) Developing a model of conflict and cooperation for Dutch relations to these countries and among these countries themselves, a.o. by comparative research into transitional justice theories and other models for coping with a totalitarian past. Our project aims to be a gamechanger, given the major role of religion in post-Soviet countries as well as the fact that this research is a niche. The complexity of contemporary religions and the various conflicts at stake call for this approach.

Contact information

Dr. E.V. (Eline) Tolstoj
E-mail: e.v.tolstoj@vu.nl
Website: www.in-a-sec.com

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BCC.1911 Multidisciplinary Solutions for High Conflict Divorce

Keywords

High conflict divorce; alternative dispute resolution; problem-solving courts; family court; data science technology

Initiator

Prof. dr. C. (Corine) de Ruiter

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Maastricht University

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Dr. Martin Hildebrand, LLM, forensic psychologist, private practice; Dr. Ferko Őry, public health paediatrician, Stichting Veilige Haven; Prof.dr. John Goedee, Professor in Complex collaborative processes, Tilburg University, Department of Organization Studies, Jheronimus Academy of Data Science and Optimal Collaboration Foundation; Prof.dr.ir. Ralf Peeters, Professor in Mathematics of Knowledge Engineering, Maastricht University, Department of Data Science and Knowledge Engineering; Prof.dr.ir. Johannes (Jan) C. Scholtes, Endowed professor in Text-Mining, Maastricht University, Department of Data Science and Knowledge Engineering and Chief Strategy Officer, ZyLAB; Prof.dr. Maurits Barendrecht, LLM, Professor of Private Law, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law School and Research Director, The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL); Dr. Christa Nieuwboer, Senior Lecturer Youth, Family & Society, Avans University of Applied Science; Prof.dr. Janine Janssen, professor of Anthropology of Law, Open University and Senior Lecturer Violence in Relations of Dependency, Avans University of Applied Sciences; Dr. Katinka Lünnemann, LLM, senior researcher, program manager Violence and safety in the family, Verwey-Jonker Institute and Lecturer, Hogeschool Utrecht; Mr. Jolanda van Boven, expert in health and privacy law, Van Boven Advies and Chair, Stichting Veilige Haven; Dr. Veronica Smits, LLM, assistant professor in family and juvenile law, Tilburg Law School, Tilburg University and adjunct judge in the Oost-Brabant Court (Den Bosch)

Other organisations involved

Programma Scheiden zonder Schade (Ministeries van Justitie en Veiligheid en VWS); Raad voor de Kinderbescherming; Mediators federatie Nederland (MfN); Vereniging voor Familie- en Erfrechtadvocaten en Scheidingsmediators (vFAS); Nederlandse Vereniging voor de Rechtspraak (NVvR); Gemeenten Hart van Brabant; Sterk Huis, Goirle; Veilig Thuis Midden-Brabant, Veilig Thuis West-Brabant; Pro6, Specialistische Zorg voor Risicojongeren en hun omgeving, Breda; Idris, Specialistische behandeling voor kinderen, jongeren en volwassenen met een lichte verstandelijke beperking (LVB) in combinatie met complex gedrag, Tilburg; Instituut voor Maatschappelijk Werk (IMW), Tilburg

Main research question

How effective are different forms of Alternative Dispute Resolution interventions in the prevention and resolution of High Conflict Divorce?

Description

Around 20% of divorces end up in a High Conflict Divorce (HCD), characterized by destructive communications patterns, including quick escalation of conflicts and persistent anger and distrust. Allegations or actual presence of child abuse, intimate partner violence, alienation, substance abuse and personality disorder traits result in prolonged litigation and children get caught in the middle. Reports estimate the total number of children in The Netherlands suffering the consequences of HCD at 16,000 annually. Ramifications of HCD for children include mental health problems, low school performance, and relationship problems as adults. At present, family law does not provide an effective solution to HCD cases, as the Raad voor de Rechtspraak acknowledged (Vision document Divorce, 2016). Adversarial family court processes are ill suited to healthy family reorganization. The core of this proposal is a need-driven approach to divorce procedures in cases that involve children. The aim is integral, multidisciplinary and evidence-based collaboration between legal, behavioral science, and datascience professionals to: (1) prevent HCD and (2) to intervene effectively in families already in HCD. In part (1) of the project, we develop a screening tool that identifies cases at high vs. medium vs. low risk of HCD at the time of filing. We will use data science in combination with forensic psychological science on family law files, to develop the tool, which we will subsequently test for predictive power on new legal cases. In part (2), we focus on families who are in HCD. Family courts will refer these families to different forms of alternative conflict resolution (ACR) as a form of case management. All ACRs will involve professionals from multiple disciplines, who fine-tune their activities towards integral service delivery, exchange relevant information, and work towards the common goal of conflict resolution in each individual HCD family.

Contact information

Prof. dr. C. (Corine) de Ruiter
E-mail: corine.deruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl
Website: www.conflictscheiding.eu

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BCC.1912 Understanding and preventing moral injury among military and police personnel: Interdisciplinary research and intervention

Keywords

Moral injury; ptsd; military; police; interdisciplinary; interventions

Main research question

What individual and contextual factors contribute to moral injury among military and police personnel, and how can moral injury be prevented?

Description

A substantial number of military and police personnel, who work as both performers and targets of violence in high-risk environments, develop moral injury: guilt, shame and anger resulting from perpetrating or falling victim to moral violations. Yet, though practitioners and scholars call for comprehensive knowledge and interventions regarding moral injury, these are currently lacking. This project combines an interdisciplinary study of the role of organizational, socio-technical and ethical-political factors in moral injury among military and police personnel, and the development of three preventive interventions. The consortium conducting this project will consist of the Centre for International Conflict Analysis and Management, the Netherlands Defense Academy, the Netherlands Police Academy, the Netherlands Veterans Institute, and Arq Psychotrauma Expert Groep. The combined expertise and input of this consortium enables a unique, innovative and interdisciplinary project in which science and practice continuously interact. Drawing on a variety of disciplines and based on a grounded theory approach, the project combines literature research, ethnographic analysis and Action Research to develop much-needed new theory on moral injury in context. Moreover, it will generate tools for preventing moral injury through the design and implementation of interventions in close cooperation with the organizations concerned, making knowledge utilization an integral part of the project. Finally, the project will ensure broad outreach to stakeholders and the public in general by means of extensive user involvement, a handbook and a project website. By examining whether and how moral injury in the military and police is currently recognized, prevented and compensated, and by improving these practices through new interventions, this project will advance the understanding and prevention of moral injury, and help reduce the risk of moral injury. In doing so, it will increase individual, organizational and societal resilience and address the suffering of those affected by violence and conflict in innovative ways.

Contact information

Interested in getting in touch with this initiator? For more details, please contact nwa-orc2019@nwo.nl

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BCC.1913 Reaching for the Star or Betting on the Wrong Horse? The Interplay and Power (Im)balance between Top Science and Top Management in Cross-boundary Innovation

Keywords

Cross-boundary innovation; decision making

Main research question

What are the antecedents of false positives and false negatives of management under uncertainty, and How to evaluate, select, and manage cross-boundary innovations?

Description

Increasingly more than before, we are facing an age of fast-paced economic and societal development, featuring great employee mobility, hybrid organization, and temporal dynamics (e.g.: Campbell et al., 2012; Pache and Santos, 2013). Organizations and societies are experiencing fundamental transformations, and at the same time, numerous grand challenges (George et al., 2016). To cope with these challenges, it requires innovative solutions based on collaborative efforts to jointly identify blind spots, gather together complementary assets and share resources. In particular, in this inter-connected world, highly specialized knowledge deeply rooted in one single domain of expertise is oftentimes insufficient to generate breakthrough innovative outcome (Govindarajan et al., 2011). Just on the contrary, those truly impactful, socially-relevant and societally-beneficial innovations call for the integration of multiple diverse knowledge sources across various professional, organizational, and societal boundaries. Which I call, cross-boundary innovation (XI). In this research project, I aim to unveil the origin, the development trajectory, as well as the challenges of cross-boundary innovations. Based on project-level data from a large major European manufacturing company, and large scale data from the Chinese automobile industry that I intend to collect, I argue that, it is not just the science, but the interplay between science and management, that shapes and reshapes the development trajectory of cross-boundary innovations.

Contact information

Interested in getting in touch with this initiator? For more details, please contact nwa-orc2019@nwo.nl

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BCC.1914 Economic impact of conflict resolution of firms: empirical and legal analyses

Keywords

Legal infrastructure; Dispute resolution mechanisms; Civil court procedures; Growth and decline of firms; Financial and construction sector; Big data

Initiator

Prof. dr. W.H.J. (Wolter) Hassink

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Utrecht University

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. dr. Eddy Bauw (Utrecht University); Prof. dr. Frans van Dijk (Utrecht University); Dr. Sunil Choenni; WODC; Ministry of Justice and Security

Other organisations involved

Raad voor de rechtspraak; Landelijk Dienstencentrum Rechtspraak

Main research question

Does the choice of conflict resolution strategy of firms – whether or not as part of their overall business strategy - affect their economic performance, including failure (bankruptcy)? Does the mix of strategies have effects on the functioning of other firms?

Description

Little is known about the interaction between conflict resolution and the performance of firms. Firms may choose to avoid damage to others as much as possible and to settle disputes if they arise. They may also take little precaution, await for aggrieved parties to come forward and litigate. Firms need a strategy also for situations in which they are harmed by actions of others. Anecdotal evidence suggests that conflict prevention and resolution are not always part of business strategies and that litigation just happens. Ultimately, some disputes may lead to bankruptcy, but they can also have economic consequences for other firms, consumers and society. Conflict resolution strategies can be based on a range of so-called alternative dispute resolution mechanisms that may help parties to resolve disputes without going to court. If those fail, parties can take recourse to the courts, unless they have forfeited this possibility. Long procedures may endanger the continuity of firms. It may lead to postponement of economic activities, since either uncertain legal positions block further steps or costly financial provisions have to be made. Such uncertainties influence the risk that firms are willing to take in their economic activities. Thereby, the legal infrastructure impacts the level of conflict in society and its resilience. The conflicts and their impact for the firms involved will be investigated by administrative data on alternative dispute resolution and court litigation at the case level for the Dutch financial and construction sectors. Both economic sectors were strongly involved at the onset of the Great Recession in 2008. The financial sector has been confronted with mass litigation of consumers. In the construction sector the production processes are such that many conflicts arise, the majority of which is resolved without taking recourse to the legal system, although many disputes enter the legal system.

Contact information

Prof. dr. W.H.J. (Wolter) Hassink
E-mail: w.h.j.hassink@uu.nl
Website: https://www.uu.nl/medewerkers/WHJHassink/Profiel

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BCC.1915 Resilience within mobility networks and alternative economies during protracted conflict and humanitarian crisis

Keywords

Conflict; societal resilience; mobility; alternative economy; citizen empowerment

Initiator

Dr. M. (Marjo) de Theije

Organisation of the initiator(s)

Vrije Universiteit

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. dr. B. (Barbara) Hogenboom (CEDLA; Universiteit van Amsterdam); Dr. E. (Eva) van Roekel (Social and Cultural Anthropology, Vrije Universiteit)

Other organisations involved

PROVEA human rights organisation, Venezuela

Main research question

How do informal networks and alternative economies operate to react to, confront and sustain protracted conflict and humanitarian crisis?

Description

In complex situations of vast economic crisis and protracted conflict, state control over movements of people, money and goods substantially weakens. From an outsider’s viewpoint, this collapse of organized systems of law and financial domination results in complete chaos and causes a ‘complex humanitarian crisis’. Scientific and policy attention usually focuses on how local conditions of calamity, with lack of food, medicines, basic services and security cause large flows of refugees leaving. However, societies in disarray do not breakdown completely and continue functioning. How do societies continue to function in times of humanitarian crisis and protracted conflict? This project scrutinizes forms of citizen empowerment and local and international partnerships that take over the organization of parts of the economy, basic services and movements of people, money and goods.

We adopt an innovative approach to resilience: not as the desired solution, but by examining how it actually works on a regional level. The complex humanitarian crisis in Venezuela and neighbouring countries is a living lab to study the forms of partnership that (un)voluntarily arise. For some stakeholders, crisis and on-going conflict are lucrative and rewarding. Criminal networks play a crucial role in the alternative economic activities that do not easily fit within the frames of human rights, rule of law, and democracy. In the conflictive fields where disputes and competing solutions for insecurity are handled, alternative forms of collaborative action arise. We focus on a three-level analysis of regional cooperation and mobility: local networks, transnational families and international agencies in Venezuela and bordering Colombia, Brazil and Caribbean parts of the Netherlands. Different aspects of citizen cooperation will be addressed: 1) the nature of transnational family networks, 2) the functioning of alternative economies, 3) the role of criminal networks, and 4) the impact of extraction and trade of natural resources.

Contact information

Dr. M. (Marjo) de Theije
E-mail: m.de.theije@vu.nl
Website: https://vunet.login.vu.nl/profile/Pages/view.aspx?accountname=i:0ǵ.t|stsfed.login.vu.nl|mte500

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BCC.1916 Combatting crimes that undermine the rule of law in a smart and comprehensive manner, in a financial public-private partnership and through artificial intelligence – with a focus on human trafficking, money laundering and corruption

Keywords

Public-private partnership; proactive criminal investigations and financial-intelligence-led crime prevention; confiscation of proceeds from perpetrators; victim reparation; human trafficking; money laundering; corruption; socio-legal research; artificial intelligence.

Initiator

Ms. mr. dr. drs. J. (Jill) Coster van Voorhout

Organisation of the initiator(s)

University of Amsterdam, Criminal Law Department

Other organisations involved

Co-financier(s); at least 10% of the total project budget in cash and/or kind;

ABN AMRO, ING, Knab, Rabobank, Inspectorate of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment,  Public Prosecution Service

Cooperating partner(s);

Bureau of the National Rapporteur on Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence against Children; Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center, Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine; CoMensha; Fairwork; FIU-Nederland; Police Academy; Ministry of Justice and Security; Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.

Co-initiators & organisation of the co-initiators  

Prof. dr. D. (Denis) Abels (criminal law – confiscation of criminal proceeds), UvA; Prof. dr. M. (Miranda) de Meijer, UvA (criminal law – criminality that undermines the rule of law); Prof. dr. M. (Maarten) de Rijke, UvA (natural sciences and information technology – artificial intelligence); Prof. dr. ing. Z. (Zeno) Geradts (Netherlandse Forensic Institute and UvA (natural sciences and information technology – forensic data sciences))

Main research question

What is the optimal way to combat crimes that undermine the rule of law such as human trafficking, money laundering and corruption in a smart and comprehensive manner, in a financial public-private partnership and through artificial intelligence?

Description

Crimes that undermine the rule of law, like human trafficking, corruption and money laundering, create  conflicts in contemporary society that urgently require cooperation between the public and private sector. Paradoxically, these crimes become increasingly lucrative and hidden. For example, human traffickers now earn around €150 billion annually, by exploiting some 40.3 million victims in sectors like prostitution and agriculture. But in the Netherlands victim registration steady declines and convictions decrease with more than 25%. Consequently, scholars agree that neither the public nor the private sector can combat these crimes alone anymore. Therefore, this research establishes the optimal way to combat these crimes in a smart and comprehensive manner, in a public-private partnership and through artificial intelligence. Academia, banks, law enforcement, NGOs, and government join forces on three pillars of research. Our first pillar involves creating the legal framework. This framework incorporates national and international criminal law as well as human rights law, including privacy and fair trial guarantees. Under our second pillar, we develop and empirically test queries for crime detection and following  financial flows in bank data. We use the experience gained through piloting a mini-query on human trafficking created by the initiator, ABNAMRO bank, and labor inspectorate. Since it had a 70% success rate, our current larger partnership uses this evidence base to create more comparable instruments for crimes like corruption and money laundering. Also, because more banks are involved, we can monitor transactions from one bank to the other. Our last pillar develops artificial intelligence to support the interactive creation of high quality search patterns on crimes and proceeds. This research helps define each partner’s role in the constantly developing social and financial-technological networks. Expected outcomes are increased crime detection, convictions, amounts of confiscated proceeds and victim reparations, and financial intelligence for crime prevention strategies.

Contact information

Ms. mr. dr. drs. J. (Jill) Coster van Voorhout
E-mail: J.CostervanVoorhout@UvA.nl
Website: https://www.uva.nl/faculteit/faculteit-der-rechtsgeleerdheid/onderzoek/onderzoeksthemas/arbeidsuitbuiting-en-mensenhandel.html

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