Military Human Enhancement: Design for Responsibility and Combat Systems


Modern warfare is impossible without advanced information-based decision support systems. Such operational environments involve a range of systems that constitute the 'choice architecture" (Sunstein and Thaler, 2009) and "wideware" (Clark 2008) of military personnel. When linked to precision munitions and delivery systems, these complex information systems create unprecedented capabilities to control the delivery of military force. But dependence on them generates difficult moral and legal challenges which are only beginning to be addressed.

We investigate the use of advanced systems to enhance military personnel in targeting decisions. We examine how moral and legal objectives can best be implemented within the design and development of military command and control systems, and investigate how current and emerging combat systems and targeting technologies are challenging our understanding and interpretation of Just War Theory and the Laws of Armed Conflict.

The proposed research (a) formulates design principles for computer assisted combat systems that are compliant with relevant legal and moral doctrines (b) investigates whether the principles of Just War Theory and ensuing rules of engagement can be reconciled with advanced forms of user enhancement by means of IT and (c) establishes whether the moral doctrines of war should be reformulated given the ubiquity of cognitive enhancement by computer systems.

The project will specifically look at a future generation of Automated, Intelligent Combat and Decision Support Systems for Command and Control that are being developed by The Netherlands Navy, the Netherlands Defence Academy and the CAMS Force Vision team of the Dutch Ministry of Defence.


Boek of monografie

  • AC Leveringhaus(2016): Ethics and autonomous weapons pp. 131
  • SRM Miller(2016): Shooting to Kill pp. 288 , New York

Hoofdstuk in boek

  • SRM Miller, G Martel(2012): Encyclopaedia of War pp. 31 - 42 , London
  • A Henschke, N Evans, F Allhoff, SRM Miller(2013): Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War pp. 226 - 235 , New York
  • SRM Miller, M Lotze, J Galliott(2015): Super Soldiers: The Ethical, Legal and Social Implications pp. 153 - 166 , New York
  • M Aaronson, W Aslam, R Rauxloh, AC Leveringhaus, TE de Greef, T Dyson(2015): Precisionstrike technology and intervention pp. 206 - 224 , London
  • T Jäger, U.E. Franke, A.C. Leveringhaus(2015): Handbuch Sicherheitsgefahren (Handbook of Security Threats) pp. 297 - 311 , Wiesbaden
  • M Aaronson, A.C. Leveringhaus, T. de Greef, W. Aslam, T. Dyson, R. Rauxloh(2015): Precision-strike technology and intervention pp. 206 - 224 , Londen
  • SRM Miller, A Henschke, BJ Strawser, F Allfhoff(2016): Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare pp. 228 - 250 , Oxford

Wetenschappelijk artikel

  • SRM Miller(2014): The Ethics of Targeted Killing: Osama bin Laden, Drones and Couterterrorism Public Affairs Quarterly pp. 317 - 340 ISSN: 2152-0542.
  • T.E. de Greef, A.C. Leveringhaus(2015): Design for responsibility: Cognition, Technology and Work pp. 319 - 328

Professionele publicatie

  • AC Leveringhaus, J Dill(2013): ‘The Anglo-American approach to computer based robotic weapons’
  • AC Leveringhaus, TE de Greef(2013): ‘Tele-operated Weapons Systems: Safeguarding Moral Perception and Responsibility’
  • TE de Greef, AC Leveringhaus(2014): Robo-Wars, the regulation of robotic weapons, pp. 1 - 32


  • AC Leveringhaus(2012): 'War and computers: autonomy, responsibility, and modern targeting systems'
  • SRM Miller(2012): Just War on Terrorism: A Cristian and Muslim Response in Global Change, Peace and Security vol 24 no 3
  • MJ van den Hoven(2013): Ethics and Information Technology Special Issue
  • SRM Miller(2013): The End of Reciprocity: Trror, Torture and the Law of War in Criminal Law and Philiosophy
  • AC Leveringhaus, T Baar(2013): 'Autonome drones' doen straks alles zelf
  • AC Leveringhaus(2013): 'Much Ado about Killer Robots'
  • AC Leveringhaus(2013): Better to know your enemy when taking on a Killer Robot
  • AC Leveringhaus(2014): Designed to Kill: The Case Against Weapons Research by Forge John
  • AC Leveringhaus(2014): Beware the march of the robot soldiers





Prof. S.R.M. Miller

Verbonden aan

Technische Universiteit Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management, Filosofie


Dr. ing. T.E. de Greef, Prof. dr. ir. C.M. Jonker, Dr. A.C. Leveringhaus, Prof. S.R.M. Miller, N.B. Niet bekend, Dr. M.M.M. Peeters


01/01/2012 tot 15/07/2015