Connecting students' in and out-of-school learning: developing an explanatory framework


Schools are seen as the societal cornerstone for initiating, facilitating and sustaining learning. Yet, schools appear to have difficulties in engaging learners across their schooling careers, leading, in some cases, to drop-out. Moreover, there is increasing recognition that powerful learning processes (also) take place in out-of-school contexts. As such, learning across different in and out-of-school contexts has recently gained attention in educational research.
Existing research addressing this issue is limited in two main respects: it habitually explores this issue uni-directionally, and it tends to take a normative stance. Recent research employing the concept of transitions has addressed this issue multi-directionally and empirically, yet yields contradictory results: some report continuity, or connections, while others find discontinuity, or disruptions in learning across contexts. The goal of this review is to systematically determine the factors that play a role in bringing about this (dis)continuity and to ascertain under which conditions even discontinuity can prove to have learning potential. We aim to answer the following questions: 1) What are factors causing either continuity or discontinuity in learning across in and out-of-school contexts? 2) What are conditions under which discontinuity can be resolved and made beneficial for students? learning?
The results of this review will culminate in an explanatory conceptual framework that expands existing learning beyond single domains or institutions, which can be tested in larger empirical research. Teachers and schools can use the results to re-design their learning environments in such a way that they can align with and better exploit out-of-school learning.





Dr. S.F. Akkerman

Verbonden aan

Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Departement Educatie & Pedagogiek


Dr. L.H. Bronkhorst MSc, Dr. L.H. Bronkhorst MSc, N.B. Niet bekend


28/06/2013 tot 11/11/2015