The Chinese Impact: Images and Ideas of China in the Dutch Golden Age

Samenvatting

China holds a special place in the European imagination. The Chinese economy, politics, and culture are increasingly attracting foreigners, but preconceptions and stereotypes often distort the European perspective. This is not a new dynamic. It is rooted in the first period of intensive contacts, the 17th century, when the Low Countries were the European hub for products from and images of China, shaping Western conceptions that persist to the present day.

This research program pioneers the comprehensive study of China's impact on low and high culture in the Netherlands, from the Chinese ceramics in Rembrandt's studio to the popular comparison of Spinoza to Confucius. It establishes how the self-image of the fledgling Dutch Republic was honed in the Chinese mirror, from Delftware imitations of porcelain to ideals of religious toleration and republicanism. Historians have neglected the 17th-century Low Countries because they failed to analyze art and ideas in an integrated manner. Only interdisciplinary study does justice to the mutually dependent images by craftsmen and scholars from the Netherlands which were widely influential. Understanding the development of these popular stereotypes enlightens Chinese-Western relations that continue to be relevant in a globalized world.

Building on and critically elaborating the method of imagology, four closely related projects chart the process of image formation in a comprehensive manner. The first project analyzes relevant prints and porcelain depicting Chinese themes and styles, foregrounding Johan Nieuhof's (1618-1672) illustrations. The second project studies textual sources from the viewpoint of intellectual history, singling out Isaac Vossius's (1618-1689) writings. The third project explores Chinese reactions to Netherlandish art and scholarship, emphasizing the role of Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688). The fourth, synthesis project analyzes art, ideas, and the perspective from China in a comparative manner, thereby criticizing traditional imagology and the related approach of Orientalism.

Output

Boek of monografie

  • K. Ruitenbeek, K.B. Tsang, L. Gesterkamp(2013): Beyond Clouds and Waves: Daoist Paintings in the Royal Ontario Museum , Toronto
  • T. Weststeijn(2014): Art and Knowledge in Rome and the European Republic of Letters, 1500-1750 pp. 380 , Turnhout
  • R. Bod, J. Maat, T. Weststeijn(2014): The Making of the Humanities, IV: The Modern Humanities
  • T. Weststeijn(2015): Art and Antiquity in the Netherlands and Britain: The Vernacular Arcadia of Franciscus Junius (1591-1677). Studies in Netherlandish Art and Cultural History 12 pp. 452 , Leiden & Boston
  • F. Scholten, M.A. Weststeijn, E. Jorink(2016): Netherlandish Art in its Global Context pp. 295
  • M. Jonker, M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Barbaren & Wijsgeren: Het beeld van China in de Gouden Eeuw , Nijmegen

Proefschrift

Hoofdstuk in boek

  • K. Ruitenbeek, L. Gesterkamp, K.B. Tsang, L. Gesterkamp(2013): Beyond Clouds and Waves: Daoist Paintings in the Royal Ontario Museum pp. 75 - 99 , Toronto
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2014): Chinese and Japanese Porcelain for the Dutch Golden Age pp. 213 - 229 , Amsterdam
  • R. Bod, R. Bod, J. Maat, J. Maat, T. Weststeijn, T. Weststeijn(2014): pp. 13 - 24 , Amsterdam
  • T. Weststeijn, T. Weststeijn(2014): Art and Knowledge in Rome and the European Republic of Letters, 1500-1750 pp. 247 - 262 , Turnhout
  • J. Rutgers, M.A. Weststeijn(2014): Rembrandt in perspectief: de veranderende visie op de meester en zijn werk pp. 12 - 40 , Zwolle
  • M.A. Weststeijn, M.A. Weststeijn(2014): Fragmenta. Journal of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome pp. 1 - 12 , Turnhout
  • M.A. Weststeijn, W. Franits(2016): The Ashgate Research Companion to Dutch Art of the Seventeenth Century, London: Ashgate/Taylor & Francis, 2016 (accepted). pp. 202 - 233
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): pp. 6 - 27
  • M.A. Weststeijn, S. Gang(2016): pp. 9 - 26
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Ashgate Research Companion to Dutch Art of the Seventeenth Century pp. 202 - 233
  • M.A. Weststeijn, S. Goettler, S. Dupre(2017): Knowledge and Discernment in the Early Modern Arts pp. 236 - 264
  • W. Van Noord, M. Jonker, M.A. Weststeijn(2017): pp. 83 - 91
  • M. Jonker, M.A. Weststeijn, T. Dijkstra(2017): Babaren en Wijsgeren: Het beeld van China in de Gouden Eeuw pp. 59 - 64
  • S. Dickey, M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Rembrandt and his Circle. Insights and Discoveries pp. 44 - 66
  • M.A. Weststeijn, M.A. Weststeijn, M. Jonker(2017): Barbaren en Wijsgeren: het beeld van China in de Gouden Eeuw pp. 9 - 24
  • W.J.H. Van Noord, T. de Graaf, W. Honselaar(2018): The fascination with Inner Eurasian languages in the 17th century: The Amsterdam mayor Nicolaas Witsen and his collection of ‘Tartarian’ vocabularies and scripts pp. 579 - 602
  • C. Secretan, M.A. Weststeijn, W. Frijhoff(2018): Dictionaire des Pays-Bas au Siecle d'or: De l'union d'Utrecht a la Paix d'Utrecht (1579-1713) pp. 139 - 141 , Paris
  • C. Hou, L. Gesterkamp(2018): 經典、儀式、與民間信仰 (Scriptures, Ritual, and Folk Beliefs) pp. 295 - 312
  • C. Craig, W.J.H. van Noord, E. Fongaro, A. Ozaki(2018): Knowledge and arts on the move: transformation of the self-aware image through East-West encounters pp. 39 - 56
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra, D. Cappa(2018): Cultural Encounters: Cross-Disciplinary Studies from the Late Middle Ages to the Enlightenment pp. 109 - 124 , Berlin
  • M.J. Versluys, G. Capriotti Vittozzi, K. Bülow Clausen, M.A. Weststeijn(2019): The Iseum Campense from the Roman Empire to the Modern Age - Temple – Monument – lieu de mémoire pp. 303 - 313

Wetenschappelijk artikel

  • W. van Noord(2013): Solving Puzzles: the Inscription on a Chinese Snuff Bottle Raises Questions of Date and Origin The British Museum Magazine pp. 52 - 53
  • L. Gesterkamp(2013): Review of Shih-shan Susan Huang, Picturing the True Form: Daoist Visual Culture in Traditional China Journal of Chinese Religions pp. 154 - 157
  • T. Dijkstra, R. Jagersma(2013): Uncovering Spinoza'?s printer by means of bibliographical research Quaerendo pp. 278 - 310
  • W.J.L. van Noord, T. Weststeijn(2015): The Global Trajectory of Nicolaas Witsen’s Chinese Mirror The Rijksmuseum Bulletin pp. 325 - 361
  • T. Weststeijn, L. Gesterkamp(2016): A New Identity for Rubens’s “Korean Man”: Portrait of the Chinese Merchant Yppong Netherlands Yearbook for History of Art pp. 142 - 169
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2016): ‘It is said that…': The Chinese Rites Controversy in Dutch newspapers and periodicals in the seventeenth century Jaarboek voor Nederlandse Boekgeschiedenis pp. 172 - 191
  • J. Maat, J. Kursell, M.A. Weststeijn, L. Bod(2016): A New Field: History of Humanities History of Humanities pp. 1 - 8
  • M.A. Weststeijn, R. Bod, J. Maat, J. Kursell(2016): Going Global History of Humanities pp. 211 - 212
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Sublime and the "Beholder's Share": Junius, Rubens, Rembrandt Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art pp. 1 - 33
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): The Synthesis of Daoist Sacred Geography: A Textual Study of Du Guangting’s Dongtian fudi yuedu ji (901) Daoism: Religion, History and Society pp. 1 - 40
  • J. Kursell, M.A. Weststeijn, J. Maat, R. Bod(2017): Practical and Material Histories of the Humanities History of Humanities pp. 1 - 2
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): The Painting Looks Back: Reciprocal Desire in the Seventeenth Century Intersections: Interdisciplinary Studies in Early Modern Culture pp. 264 - 298
  • T. Dijkstra, M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Constructing Confucius in the Low Countries De Zeventiende Eeuw pp. 137 - 164
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2018): “Tot eeuwige memorie de druckerye-konste”: Simon de Vries's Discourse on the Chinese Art of Print (1682) Quaerendo pp. 206 - 232
  • T. Weststeijn, R. Bod, J. Kursell, J. Maat(2018): Rethinking the Humanities and the Sciences History of Humanities pp. 1 - 3

Professionele publicatie

  • L. Gesterkamp(2016): Review of Huang, Chun-chieh and Jörn Rüsen (eds.), Chinese Historical Thinking: An Intercultural Discussion. Taipei: V&R Unipress and National Taiwan University Press, 2015
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): Review of Noël Golvers, Libraries of Western Learning for China. Circulation of Western Books between Europe and China in the Jesuit Mission (ca. 1650-ca. 1750). 3 Vols.
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): Book review: A. Schnapp, L. von Falkenhausen, P.N. Miller & T. Murray (eds.), World Antiquarianism: Comparative Perspectives pp. 185 - 187
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): Review of: World Antiquarianism: Comparative Perspectives, edited by Alain Schnapp, with Lothar von Falkenhausen, Peter N. Miller, and Tim Murray. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2013. pp. 185 - 187
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2017): Review: Benjamin Schmidt, Inventing Exoticism pp. 419 - 420
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Review of: Neil De Marchi and Sophie Raux, eds., Moving Pictures: Intra-European Trade in Images, 16th–18th Centuries, 2014; Gerrit Verhoeven, Europe within Reach: Netherlandish Travellers on the Grand Tour and Beyond (1585–1750). 2015
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): Review: Luk Yu-ping, The Empress and the Heavenly Masters: A Study of the Ordination Scroll of Empress Zhang (1493) (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2015) pp. 131 - 134
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Review: Alessandro Pergoli Campanelli, La nascita del restauro: Dall’antichità all’Alto Medioevo pp. 507 - 509
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Review: Xiaoqian Fu-Hébert, L’Architecture chinoise dans la pensée des Jésuites du XVIIIe siècle: Représentation de l’architecture chinoise en France par les premiers sinologues pp. 514 - 517
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2018): Review: Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Europe’s India: Words, People, Empires, 1500–1800 pp. 220 - 222
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2018): Review: Michael Keevak, Embassies to China: Diplomacy and Cultural Encounters before the Opium Wars pp. 122 - 124
  • T. Weststeijn(2019): Review: Gero Seelig, Eric Jorink, Bert van de Roemer & Karin Leonhard, Medusa’s Menagerie: Otto Marseus van Schrieck and the Scholars pp. 170 - 171

Publicatie bedoeld voor een breed publiek

Publieksinformatie

  • M.A. Weststeijn(2014): Co-organization of Conference The Making of the Humanities, IV
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2014): "The Chinese, most intelligent of all nations”: Wishful Thinking about China in the Low Countries, 1600-1700
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2014): The Chinese Challenge: Accomodating East Asia in Seventeenth-Century European Antiquarianism
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2014): The Sublime in Dutch Art: Franciscus Junius translates Longinus
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Learned Eye according to Franciscus Junius
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Indies in Nicolaas Witsen’s Collection
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Indies in Nicolaas Witsen’s Collection
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2015): Printing and Publishing China in the Dutch Republic
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Middle Kingdom in the Low Countries
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): Le Siècle d’Or néerlandais dans le miroir de la Chine
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Painting Looks Back: Reciprocal Desire in the Seventeenth Century
  • W.J.L Van Noord(2015): An ancient mirror in motion: from China through Siberia to the Netherlands and back (c. 100 BCE – 1700 CE)
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): Working Group 2: Epistemic Objects
  • W.J.L. Van Noord, M.A. Weststeijn(2015): The Arts of Asia in Nicolaes Witsen’s (1641-1717) Collection in Amsterdam
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2015): Asian Philosophy in the Netherlands
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2016): China materialised? The reception of Chinese material culture in the seventeenth-century Netherlands
  • L. Gesterkamp(2016): Helanren zai shiqi shiji shoucang Zhongguo yishupin 荷蘭人在十七世紀收藏中國藝術品” (Collecting Chinese Art in the Netherlands of the Seventeenth Century)
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Sino-Egyptian Hypothesis
  • J. Maat, R. Bod, M.A. Weststeijn, J. Kursell(2016): History of Humanities
  • L. Gesterkamp(2016): Lecture series Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Dutch Golden Age in a Chinese Mirror
  • L. Gesterkamp(2016): “Helanren zai shiqi shiji shoucang Zhongguo yishupin 荷蘭人在十七世紀收藏中國藝術品” Collecting Chinese Art in the Netherlands of the Seventeenth Century)
  • L. Gesterkamp(2016): Helanren zai shiqi shiji shoucang Zhongguo yishupin 荷蘭人在十七世紀收藏中國藝術品” (Collecting Chinese Art in the Netherlands of the Seventeenth Century)
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Rise and Fall of a Standard Model: The Sino-Egyptian Hypothesis
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): The Optics of Otherness: Vermeer’s Painted Porcelain
  • W.J.L. van Noord(2016): “One of the greatest antiquities that we have here from those lands” : interpreting inscribed Han dynasty mirrors from Siberian burials in early eighteenth-century Europe
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2016): Co-organization of Conference The Making of the Humanities, V
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2016): Confucius in Early Modern Dutch print-work
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2016): From Future Curator to PhD Researcher
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): The Chinese Impact
  • W.J.L. van Noord(2017): Principal organizer of ‘Show me China: ontmoet vier eeuwen China in Nederland [Show me China: discover four centuries of Chinese presence in the Netherlands] symposium
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Interview by Wieteke van Zeil in relation to Frans Hals Museum exhibition
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): The First Chinese Antiquity in Europe
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2017): Constructing Confucius in the Low Countries: how the Western Idea of Confucius came into being through Dutch print
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Interview by Kees van der Linden in relation to Frans Hals Museum exhibition
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Rubens’s Portrait of the Chinese Merchant Yppong’
  • W.J.L. van Noord(2017): Organizer of Het Beeld van China in de Gouden Eeuw [The image of China in the Dutch Golden Age]
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2017): Dutch reflections in Chinese mirrors: interpreting China in the Netherlands through encounters with inscribed Chinese artifacts, 1680-1720
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Co-organization of Conference The Making of the Humanities, VI
  • W.J.L. van Noord(2017): Discussion of Dutch vs. Chinese ceramics
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Oratie: Een wereldse kunst
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): Hiding in Plain Sight: Daoist Images and Images of Daoism in the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): “Xie Youyu qiuhe tu: Mantan Zhao Mengfu yu qi daojiao huihua de wenti 《謝幼輿丘壑圖》——漫談趙孟頫與其道教 的問題” (The Mind Landscape of Xie Youyu: A Discussion on the Problem of Zhao Mengfu and his Daoist Paintings)
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Interview by Arjan Glas in relation to Frans Hals Museum exhibition
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Interview by Laura Stek
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2017): Interview by Marjolein Overmeer
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): Invited lecture: “Cang zai yanpi di xia: Shiqi shiji zai Helan de daojiao shenxian tuxiang jiqi dui daojiao de lijie 藏在眼皮底下:十七世纪在荷兰的道教神仙图像及其对道教的理解“ (Hiding in Plain Sight: Daoist Images and Images of Daoism in the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century).
  • L. Gesterkamp(2017): Cang zai yanpi di xia: Shiqi shiji zai Helan de daojiao shenxian tuxiang jiqi dui daojiao de lijie 藏在眼皮底下:十七世纪在荷兰的道教神仙图像及其对道教的理解“ (Hiding in Plain Sight: Daoist Images and Images of Daoism in the Netherlands in the Seventeenth Century).
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2018): Shining a Global Light on Samuel van Hoogstraten’s Visible World”
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2018): Interview by Andrea Valderrama
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2018): Collecting Chinese objects in the seventeenth-century (Northern) Netherlands
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2018): Co-organization of Conference The Making of the Humanities, VII
  • M.A. Weststeijn(2018): Interview by Clairy Polak
  • G.W.H. Dijkstra(2018): China in the European Consciousness: The Formative Role of Jesuit Missionaries
  • W.J.L. van Noord(2019): From foreign script to new motif: pseudo-Chinese characters on seventeenth-century Dutch Delftware and the materiality of ‘Chineseness'
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2019): Tangible China: material culture and perceptions of China in the seventeenth-century Netherlands
  • W.J.L. Van Noord(2019): Between script and ornament: Delftware decorated with pseudo-Chinese characters, 1680-1720

Kenmerken

Projectnummer

276-69-004

Hoofdaanvrager

Prof. dr. M.A. Weststeijn

Verbonden aan

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen, Kunst- en Cultuurwetenschappen

Uitvoerders

Drs. G.W.H. Dijkstra, Dr. L. Gesterkamp, Dr. L. Gesterkamp, Drs. W.J.L. van Noord, Prof. dr. M.A. Weststeijn, Prof. dr. M.A. Weststeijn

Looptijd

01/01/2014 tot 04/10/2019