Scaffolding self-regulation: Effects on the acquisition of domain-specific skills and self-regulated learning skills


Research has convincingly shown that 'scaffolding' facilitates learning. Scaffolding is a combination of providing learner guidance and gradually fading that guidance as learner expertise increases. The aim of this project is to investigate whether scaffolding techniques that have proven effective for learning of domain-specific skills, would also improve the acquisition of students? self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, such as monitoring and evaluating their own learning or determining next study activities. The scaffolding techniques that will be investigated are: (1) modeling examples, in which peer students (i.e., the models) demonstrate how they successfully engage in SRL, (2) peer-tutor guidance, in which learners engage in a computer-based, peer-tutoring dialogue directed at the development of their SRL-skills, and (3) metacognitive checklists that contain guiding questions for learners to use when engaging in SRL. Effects of different task types (conceptual vs. procedural) and effects on attention (using eye-tracking) and working memory load will be investigated.


Wetenschappelijk artikel

  • T Van Gog, CPM Van der Vleuten, J Leppink, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, F Paas(2013): Development of an instrument for measuring different types of cognitive load Behavior Research Methods pp. 1058 - 1072
  • J. Leppink, F. Paas, C. van der Vleuten, T. van Gog, J. van Merrienboer(2013): Development of an instrument for measuring different types of cognitive load Behavior Research Methods pp. 1058 - 1072
  • J Leppink, T van Gog, C.P.M. van der Vleuten, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, F Paas(2014): Effects of pairs of problems and examples on task performance and different types of cognitive load Learning and Instruction pp. 32 - 42
  • J. Leppink, F. Paas, T. van Gog, C. van der Vleuten, J. van Merrienboer(2014): Effects of pairs of problems and examples on task performance and different types of cognitive load Learning and Instruction pp. 32 - 43
  • J. Leppink, A. van den Heuvel(2015): The evolution of cognitive load tehory and its application to medical education Perspectives on Medical Education pp. 119 - 127
  • J.J.G. van Merrienboer, J Leppink(2015): The beast of aggregating cognitive load measures in technology-based learning Educational Technology & Society pp. 230 - 245
  • A. Lafleur, L. Cote, J. Leppink(2015): Influences of OSCE design on students' diagnostic reasoning Medical Education pp. 203 - 2014
  • F Paas, T Van Gog, M Baars, L Schaap, S.F. Raaijmakers(2016): Effects of performance feedback valence on perceptions of invested mental effort Learning and Instruction pp. 36 - 46

Hoofdstuk in boek

  • J. Cleland, J. Leppink, S. Durning, T. van gog, F. Paas, J. Sweller(2015): Researching Medical Education pp. 207 - 218 , New York


  • J Leppink(2013): Cognitive load in learning statistics
  • J Leppink, YP Hsiao(2013): Cognitive load in learning Chinese language
  • E.M. Kok, A.B.H. De Bruin, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, J Leppink(2014): Eye-tracking and subjective indicators of cognitive load and judgment of learning
  • SF Raaijmakers, F Paas, L Schaap, T Van Gog, JJG van Merrienboer(2014): Scaffolding self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka, L Kester, ML Nugteren(2014): Does tutoring help to acquire self-regulated learning skills? The acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • V Popravko, J Leppink(2014): Cognitive load in mathematics performance
  • ML Nugteren, L Kester, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka(2014): Het verkrijgen van zelfregulatievaardigheden door middel van tutoring [The acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • L Kester, H Jarodzka, JJG van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren(2014): Supporting the acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, SF Raaijmakers, L Schaap, T Van Gog, F Paas(2014): Scaffolding self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • DHJM Dolmans, R.E. Stalmeijer, A Muijtjens, J Leppink, FCJ Stevens(2014): Measuring cognitive load to optimize instructiveness of your courses: a case in health professions education
  • T Cleary, K Picho, J Leppink, A Artino(2015): Assessing self-regulated learning processes in a virtual-patient case
  • H Jarodzka, JJG Van Merrienboer, L Kester, ML Nugteren(2015): Fostering self-regulated learning skills with the help of an electronic tutoring system
  • J Leppink, T Van Gog, L Kester, JJG Van Merrienboer(2015): Metacognitive checklists to facilitate self-regulation skills
  • F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, M Baars, L Schaap, T Van Gog(2015): The effect of fixed performance feedback on mental effort ratings
  • J Leppink, MH Van Loon, EM Bergman, EM Kok, ABH De Bruin(2015): On the accuracy of metacognitive judgments in probability tasks
  • L Schaap, M Baars, JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers(2015): Can metacognitive strategies be improved with video-based modeling examples
  • ML Nugteren, L Kester, JJG van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka(2015): Self-regulation of secondary school students: self-assessments are insufficiently used for learning task selection
  • L Schaap, M Baars, T Van Gog, JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers(2015): Training self-regulated learning skills with video modeling examples
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren, H Jarodzka, L Kester(2015): How can tutoring support task selection?
  • ABH de Bruin, SF Raaijmakers, J Leppink, F Paas, T Van Gog, JJG van Merrienboer(2015): Cognitive Load, cues, and task selection in learning probability calc
  • ZU Khan, N Amer, J Leppink, CF Collares, M Meziani, D Waterval(2015): Metacognitive cues, confidence, and performance in progress testing: are they related?
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, J Leppink(2016): Metacognitive support in self-regulation through checklists
  • H Jarodzka, JJG Van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren, L Kester(2016): Self-regulation of secondary school students: Self-assessments and learning-task selection
  • F Paas, T Van Gog, L Kester, JJG Van Merrienboer, J Leppink(2016): Het effect van metacognitieve checklists op zelfregulatievaardigheden
  • T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers, JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas, M Baars(2016): Improving training of self-regulated learning skills with metacognitive feedback
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka, L Kester, ML Nugteren(2016): Scaffolding self-regulated learning through tutoring
  • J Leppink(2016): Current trends and future directions in research inspired by cognitive load theory
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, M Baars, L Schaap, F Paas, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers(2016): Using video modeling examples to improve self-assessment and task-selection skills
  • L Kester, T Van Gog, F Paas, J Leppink, JJG Van Merrienboer, P Chandler(2016): Effects of metacognitive prompts on self-regulated learning skills
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, P Chandler, L Kester, F Paas, J Leppink, T Van Gog(2016): Effects of metacognitive checklists on self-regulated learning skills
  • R Ellaway, D Topps, M Pusic, KM Kulasegaram, J Leppink(2016): Bigger or better: a programmatic approach to the promises and perils of using “Big Data” in medical education
  • F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, JJG Van Merrienboer, L Schaap, T Van Gog, M Baars(2016): Het effect van videovoorbeelden op het leren van zelf-regulatievaardigheden
  • T van Gog, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, JJG van Merrienboer, M Baars(2017): Providing feedback on self-assessments: Effects on subsequent self-assessment and task selection
  • SF Raaijmakers, JJG van Merrienboer, M Baars, L Schaap, T van Gog, F Paas(2017): Training self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • J Leppink, L Kester, T Van Gog, F Paas, JJG van Merrienboer(2017): Effects of reflective prompts and performance feedback on learning task selection and posttest performance
  • H Jarodzka, JJG Van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren, L Kester(2017): The effects of task-selection guidance on actual task selections and development of domain-specific skills





Prof. dr. J.J.G. van Merriënboer

Verbonden aan

Maastricht University, UMC+, Onderwijsontwikkeling & Onderwijsresearch


Dr. J. Leppink, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, M.L. Nugteren MSc, S. Raaijmakers MSc


01/05/2013 tot 31/07/2017