Scaffolding self-regulation: Effects on the acquisition of domain-specific skills and self-regulated learning skills


Research has convincingly shown that 'scaffolding' facilitates learning. Scaffolding is a combination of providing learner guidance and gradually fading that guidance as learner expertise increases. The aim of this project is to investigate whether scaffolding techniques that have proven effective for learning of domain-specific skills, would also improve the acquisition of students? self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, such as monitoring and evaluating their own learning or determining next study activities. The scaffolding techniques that will be investigated are: (1) modeling examples, in which peer students (i.e., the models) demonstrate how they successfully engage in SRL, (2) peer-tutor guidance, in which learners engage in a computer-based, peer-tutoring dialogue directed at the development of their SRL-skills, and (3) metacognitive checklists that contain guiding questions for learners to use when engaging in SRL. Effects of different task types (conceptual vs. procedural) and effects on attention (using eye-tracking) and working memory load will be investigated.



Hoofdstuk in boek

  • J. Cleland, J. Leppink, T. van gog, S. Durning, F. Paas, J. Sweller(2015): Researching Medical Education pp. 207 - 218 , New York

Wetenschappelijk artikel

  • J. Leppink, F. Paas, C. van der Vleuten, T. van Gog, J. van Merrienboer(2013): Development of an instrument for measuring different types of cognitive load Behavior Research Methods pp. 1058 - 1072
  • T Van Gog, F Paas, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, J Leppink, CPM Van der Vleuten(2013): Development of an instrument for measuring different types of cognitive load Behavior Research Methods pp. 1058 - 1072
  • J. Leppink, F. Paas, T. van Gog, C. van der Vleuten, J. van Merrienboer(2014): Effects of pairs of problems and examples on task performance and different types of cognitive load Learning and Instruction pp. 32 - 43
  • F Paas, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, C.P.M. van der Vleuten, J Leppink, T van Gog(2014): Effects of pairs of problems and examples on task performance and different types of cognitive load Learning and Instruction pp. 32 - 42
  • A. Lafleur, L. Cote, J. Leppink(2015): Influences of OSCE design on students' diagnostic reasoning Medical Education pp. 203 - 2014
  • J. Leppink, A. van den Heuvel(2015): The evolution of cognitive load tehory and its application to medical education Perspectives on Medical Education pp. 119 - 127
  • J Leppink, J.J.G. van Merrienboer(2015): The beast of aggregating cognitive load measures in technology-based learning Educational Technology & Society pp. 230 - 245
  • S.F. Raaijmakers, L Schaap, M Baars, T Van Gog, F Paas(2016): Effects of performance feedback valence on perceptions of invested mental effort Learning and Instruction pp. 36 - 46
  • S.F. Raaijmakers, F Paas, L Schaap, T van Gog, J.J.G. Van Merriënboer, M Baars(2017): Training self-regulated learning skills with video modeling examples: Do task-selection skills transfer? Instructional Science pp. 273 - 290
  • J.J.G. van Merriënboer, F Paas, L Schaap, M Baars, S.F. Raaijmakers, T van Gog(2018): Training self-assessment and task-selection skills to foster self-regulated learning: Do trained skills transfer across domains? Applied Cognitive Psychology pp. 0 - 0
  • J.J.G. Van Merriënboer, H Jarodzka, L Kester, M.L. Nugteren(2018): Self-regulation of secondary school students: self-assessments are inaccurate and insufficiently used for learning-task selection Instructional Science pp. 0 - 0


  • J Leppink(2013): Cognitive load in learning statistics
  • YP Hsiao, J Leppink(2013): Cognitive load in learning Chinese language
  • J Leppink, V Popravko(2014): Cognitive load in mathematics performance
  • L Kester, JJG van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren, H Jarodzka(2014): Supporting the acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • FCJ Stevens, DHJM Dolmans, R.E. Stalmeijer, J Leppink, A Muijtjens(2014): Measuring cognitive load to optimize instructiveness of your courses: a case in health professions education
  • L Schaap, JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers(2014): Scaffolding self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, J Leppink, A.B.H. De Bruin, E.M. Kok(2014): Eye-tracking and subjective indicators of cognitive load and judgment of learning
  • ML Nugteren, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka, L Kester(2014): Does tutoring help to acquire self-regulated learning skills? The acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • L Schaap, T Van Gog, JJG van Merrienboer, SF Raaijmakers, F Paas(2014): Scaffolding self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • H Jarodzka, J.J.G. Van Merrienboer, L Kester, ML Nugteren(2014): Het verkrijgen van zelfregulatievaardigheden door middel van tutoring [The acquisition of self-regulation skills through tutoring
  • L Kester, J Leppink, T Van Gog, JJG Van Merrienboer(2015): Metacognitive checklists to facilitate self-regulation skills
  • EM Kok, EM Bergman, MH Van Loon, J Leppink, ABH De Bruin(2015): On the accuracy of metacognitive judgments in probability tasks
  • K Picho, T Cleary, J Leppink, A Artino(2015): Assessing self-regulated learning processes in a virtual-patient case
  • JJG van Merrienboer, ABH de Bruin, T Van Gog, J Leppink, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers(2015): Cognitive Load, cues, and task selection in learning probability calc
  • M Meziani, N Amer, D Waterval, CF Collares, ZU Khan, J Leppink(2015): Metacognitive cues, confidence, and performance in progress testing: are they related?
  • L Schaap, F Paas, JJG Van Merrienboer, M Baars, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers(2015): Can metacognitive strategies be improved with video-based modeling examples
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, L Kester, ML Nugteren, H Jarodzka(2015): Fostering self-regulated learning skills with the help of an electronic tutoring system
  • F Paas, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers, L Schaap, M Baars(2015): The effect of fixed performance feedback on mental effort ratings
  • L Kester, JJG Van Merrienboer, H Jarodzka, ML Nugteren(2015): How can tutoring support task selection?
  • L Schaap, M Baars, T Van Gog, SF Raaijmakers, JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas(2015): Training self-regulated learning skills with video modeling examples
  • ML Nugteren, JJG van Merrienboer, L Kester, H Jarodzka(2015): Self-regulation of secondary school students: self-assessments are insufficiently used for learning task selection
  • ML Nugteren, JJG Van Merrienboer, L Kester, H Jarodzka(2016): Self-regulation of secondary school students: Self-assessments and learning-task selection
  • F Paas, JJG Van Merrienboer, T Van Gog, M Baars, SF Raaijmakers(2016): Improving training of self-regulated learning skills with metacognitive feedback
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, T Van Gog, M Baars, L Schaap(2016): Het effect van videovoorbeelden op het leren van zelf-regulatievaardigheden
  • JJG Van Merrienboer, J Leppink(2016): Metacognitive support in self-regulation through checklists
  • P Chandler, F Paas, J Leppink, L Kester, JJG Van Merrienboer, T Van Gog(2016): Effects of metacognitive prompts on self-regulated learning skills
  • H Jarodzka, L Kester, ML Nugteren, JJG Van Merrienboer(2016): Scaffolding self-regulated learning through tutoring
  • D Topps, R Ellaway, J Leppink, M Pusic, KM Kulasegaram(2016): Bigger or better: a programmatic approach to the promises and perils of using “Big Data” in medical education
  • M Baars, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, L Schaap, T Van Gog, JJG Van Merrienboer(2016): Using video modeling examples to improve self-assessment and task-selection skills
  • J Leppink, JJG Van Merrienboer, L Kester, F Paas, T Van Gog(2016): Het effect van metacognitieve checklists op zelfregulatievaardigheden
  • J Leppink(2016): Current trends and future directions in research inspired by cognitive load theory
  • T Van Gog, L Kester, F Paas, J Leppink, JJG Van Merrienboer, P Chandler(2016): Effects of metacognitive checklists on self-regulated learning skills
  • F Paas, L Kester, J Leppink, T Van Gog, JJG van Merrienboer(2017): Effects of reflective prompts and performance feedback on learning task selection and posttest performance
  • M Baars, F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, JJG van Merrienboer, T van Gog, L Schaap(2017): Training self-regulated learning skills with video-based modeling examples
  • H Jarodzka, L Kester, JJG Van Merrienboer, ML Nugteren(2017): The effects of task-selection guidance on actual task selections and development of domain-specific skills
  • J. Leppink(2017): Zelfgereguleerd leren gaat niet vanzelf: Het belang van context, feedback en de juiste vragen
  • F Paas, SF Raaijmakers, M Baars, T van Gog, JJG van Merrienboer(2017): Providing feedback on self-assessments: Effects on subsequent self-assessment and task selection
  • J.J.G. van Merrienboer, L. Kester, M.L. Nugteren, H. Jarodzka(2017): Tutorondersteuning bij taakselecties
  • M. Baars, L. Schaap, S.F. Raaijmakers, F Paas, J.J.G. van Merriënboer, T. van Gog(2017): Effecten van training en feedback op de accuratesse van zelfbeoordeling en taakselectie
  • L Kester, J. Leppink, F Paas, T van Gog, J.J.G. van Merriënboer(2017): Self-regulated learning of probability calculus through checklists of learning and task selection





Prof. dr. J.J.G. van Merriënboer

Verbonden aan

Maastricht University, Maastricht UMC+, Onderwijsontwikkeling & Onderwijsresearch


Dr. J. Leppink, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, N.B. Niet Bekend en Niet Gebruiken, M.L. Nugteren MSc, S.F. Raaijmakers MSc


01/05/2013 tot 15/10/2018