2008

Below you find a list per round of researchers awarded funding with a provisional title and a brief summary of the research project, the current employer or the last place where the researcher worked and the host Institute at which the Rubicon research will be carried out.
  • Round 1

    Cyber resistance in Lebanon and Palestine: Political activism by means of the internet
    Drs. M. Aouragh (v) 18-11-1972, Universiteit van Amsterdam –> University of Oxford, (Groot Brittannië), 24 maanden
    Internet en politiek activisme in het Midden Oosten. Het Palestijns/Israëlisch conflict is één van de belangrijkste internationale conflicten. In tegenstelling tot de gangbare officiële analyses richt dit onderzoek zich op alledaagse ervaringen; vooral hoe activisten tijdens hun (conventionele) strategieën en tactieken gebruik maken van innovatieve internet technologieën.

    Unravelling the molecular mechanisms controlling energy dissipation in photosynthetic organisms
    Drs. R. Berera (m) 28-04-1976, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam -> CEA Saclay, (Frankrijk), 24 maanden
    In order to cope with the deleterious effects of excess light photosynthetic organisms have developed a remarkable process called photoprotection. In this project I will study the molecular events that trigger and regulate the process.

    Elucidating the inactivating mechanism and efficacy of (pro-)vitamin D3 and similar molecules on the Hedgehog pathway
    Drs. M.F. Bijlsma MSc (m) 25-11-1979, Universiteit van Amsterdam -> University of California, Berkeley (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    In het vormgeven van het ontwikkelende embryo spelen de zogenaamde 'hedgehog' (egel) eiwitten een grote rol. Helaas zijn deze eiwitten ook verantwoordelijk voor het ontstaan van een aantal tumoren in volwassenen. De onderzoeker heeft eerder gevonden dat vitamine D3 de natuurlijke remmer is van deze hedgehogs en wil nu bepalen hoe vitamine D3 exact werkt, zodat betere behandelingsstrategieen kunnen worden ontwikkeld voor bovengenoemde tumoren.

    Verbeteren van voorloper cellen
    Drs. R.A. Boon (m) 30-08-1981, Vrije universiteit Amsterdam -> Frankfurt (Duitsland), 24 maanden
    Na een hartaanval houden veel patienten hartklachten. Artsen kunnen het hart repareren door voorloper cellen uit het bloed van de patient zelf in het hart te plaatsen. De onderzoekers gaan uitzoeken hoe ze deze cellen beter kunnen laten repareren.

    A transmission tailored package of control measures to eradicate malaria and its impact on protective immunity
    Dr. J.T. Bousema (m) 04-09-1977, Universitair Medisch Centrum St. Radboud -> London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (Groot Brittannië), 24 maanden
    Er zijn hoopgevende resultaten behaald met een kandidaat-malariavaccin en in Afrika wordt op grote schaal gebruik gemaakt van nieuwe effectieve medicijncombinaties en klamboe's die langdurig bescherming bieden tegen malariamuggen. Deze positieve ontwikkelingen zorgen ervoor dat er anno 2008 een serieus plan gemaakt wordt voor de uitroeiïng van malaria in sommige gebieden. Hiervoor is een aanpak nodig waarbij de juiste controlestrategieën op het juiste moment worden ingezet. Dit hangt o.a. af van de hoeveelheid malaria die er in een gebied voorkomt en of er sprake is van seizoensgebonden malaria. Dit project zal een strategisch plan van aanpak opleveren voor controle en/of uitroeiïng van malaria. Hierbij zal gebruik gemaakt worden van historische en actuele studie gegevens.

    Modulation of the EGFR- and PI3-kinase pathways in established tumours
    Dr. E.C. de Bruin (v) 29-09-1977, Academisch Medisch Centrum -> Cancer Research Research Institute (Groot Brittannië), 24 maanden
    Resistentie tegen de therapie is een groot probleem bij het behandelen van kankerpatiënten. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat een actief PI3-kinase een rol speelt in deze resistentie. De onderzoekers willen de rol van dit kinase in longtumoren bestuderen om te bepalen of het remmen van dit kinase een mogelijke behandelmethode is die specifiek de tumorcellen aanpakt zonder bijwerkingen voor de andere cellen van de patiënt. Bovendien willen de onderzoekers begrijpen waarom tumoren eventueel resistent zijn, en hopen zij markers te vinden die de gevoeligheid voor de behandeling kunnen voorspellen om op deze manier de behandeling van kankerpatiënten te verbeteren.

    FRET analysis of cotranslational membrane protein folding by the Sec61 ER translocon
    Drs. J. Gubbens (m) 28-05-1980, Universiteit Utrecht –> University Portland (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    Biologische cellen zijn omgeven door een membraan, waarin zich belangrijke eiwitten bevinden. Voor het goed uitvoeren van hun functie moeten deze ingewikkelde eiwitten zonder fouten worden gevouwen. De onderzoekers zullen ophelderen hoe de cel dit voor elkaar krijgt.

    Waardevolle implementatie in de zorg
    Ir. T. Hoomans MSc (m) 03-04-1976, Universiteit Maastricht -> University of Glasgow (Verenigd Koninkrijk), 12 maanden
    Om patiëntenzorg te verbeteren, is implementatie nodig. Meer implementatie is niet per se meer waardevol. Met een model wordt inzicht gegeven in de beschikbare en noodzakelijke middelen voor het implementeren van goede zorg en de mogelijke waarde van meerdere implementatieactiviteiten.

    Private health insurance and HIV/AIDS in Namibia
    Dr. W. Janssens (v) 31-07-1974, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam –> Londen Institute for Fiscal Studies, Centre for the Evaluation of Development Policies (Engeland), 7 maanden
    De meerderheid van de met HIV/AIDS besmette mensen in Namibië heeft geen toegang tot AIDS-medicijnen. Dit onderzoek analyseert of een nieuwe ziektekostenverzekering, inclusief AIDS-behandeling, mensen in staat stelt sneller weer te gaan werken en hun kinderen naar school te sturen.

    Epidemiological aspects of progression in multiple sclerosis
    Dr. M.W. Koch (m) 21-02-1977, Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen -> University of British Columbia MS Group (Canada), 12 maanden
    Mensen met MS hebben in het begin vaak 'schubs': korte periodes met nieuwe symptomen, waarvan ze weer herstellen. Als de ziekte langer bestaat, stoppen de schubs en worden de klachten geleidelijk aan steeds erger, dit noemt men de 'progressieve fase'. Dit onderzoek gaat na welke factoren deze progressieve fase beïnvloeden.

    Ascertaining the role of Myc in mouse mammary tumorigenesis
    Drs. R.M. Kortlever (m), 24-08-1970, Universiteit van Utrecht -> University of California San Francisco (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    UCSF has developed mouse models that can help us address fundamental questions of how in vivo certain supposed central nodes in cancer development truly are necessary in the execution of the disease, and how resistance or bypass to therapy may develop on a molecular level in a higher organism. During my PhD research I have sought a deeper understanding of fundamental cancer-initiating processes by specifically focussing on some of the molecules or pathways central to cancer development. The models at UCSF will provide me with an ideal opportunity to expand on those ideas at the next level of complexity.

    Understanding long-distance syntactic dependencies
    Drs. V. Kuperman (m) 29-07-1973, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen -> Stanford University (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    Een zin begrijpen met van elkaar afhankelijke woorden die (ver) gescheiden zijn, lijkt eenvoudig (b.v. De slachtoffers sterken al weken aan in het verpleegtehuis). Dit projekt onderzoekt die eigenschappen van woorden, zinnen, en ons geheugen die maken dat wij deze zinnen meestal probleemloos kunnen verwerken.

    Regulation of homologous recombination by the interaction between the MRN complex and Ctp1
    Dr. P. Langerak (v) 06-11-1979 -> The Scripps Research Institute (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    Dr. Russell from SRI is a world-renowned leader in the field of cell cycle control and DNA damage checkpoints using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Checkpoint mechanisms are broadly conserved amongst eukaryotes and essentially all the checkpoint proteins in fission yeast have human orthologs that are required to protect genome integrity.

    Intrusion Detection in Ubiquitous Computing Technologies
    Dr. A. Mitrokotsa (v) 08-10-1978, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam -> Technische Universiteit Delft, 12 maanden
    Ubiquitous computing, het concept van alomaanwezige computer systemen, heeft recentelijk veel aandacht gekregen, met name door de evolutie van draadloze netwerken en mobiele computerapparatuur. Ubiquitous computing technieken zoals sensornetwerken en Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systemen hebben vele voordelen en zijn breed toepasbaar. Ze gaan echter ook gepaard met verscheidene inherente kwestbaarheden die grote consequenties op het gebied van veiligheid kunnen hebben. In dit onderzoek willen we intrusion detection ("detectie van misbruik") en responstechnieken aanwijzen in de context van sensornetwerken en RFID-systemen. We concentreren ons op de detectie van en reactie op een aanval in een vroegtijdig stadium.

    Ontstaansgeschiedenis van Jupiter-grootte planeten.
    Drs. C.W. Ormel (m) 06-06-1981, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen -> Queen Mary University (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    Er zijn meer dan 250 planeten bekend buiten het zonnestelsel, meestal ter grootte van Jupiter. Onbekend is hoe deze reuzeplaneten gevormd zijn en wat hun positie ten opzichte van de ster bepaalt. Door middel van simulaties zal hun ontstaansgeschiedens worden achterhaald.

    Unreflective Action
    Dr. D.W. Rietveld, MSc, (m) 31-05-1969, Universiteit van Amsterdam -> Harvard University (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    In veel situaties in ons alledaagse leven handelen we bekwaam zonder reflectie. Op de fiets bijvoorbeeld doen we gewoon wat er gegeven de omstandigheden gedaan moet worden. Dit onderzoek integreert een filosofisch perspectief op ongereflecteerd adequaat handelen met neurowetenschappelijke inzichten.

    Self-renewal in normal and cancer breast stemcells
    Dr. F.A. Scheeren (m) 09-03-1975, Universiteit van Amsterdam -> Stanford University Medical Center (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    The Stanford Institute for Stemcell and Regenerative Medicine has a leading position in the field of stemcell research. The lab is focused on in vivo models to answer question regarding the self-renewal capacity of normal and cancer stemcells. For this they use both mouse models, such as the Bmi-1 deficient mouse as well as xenograft models such as breast cancer and human colorectal cancer stemcell xenograft models. The xenograft model for breast cancer is an important tool as it allows studying human breast cancer in an in vivo setting.

    Lock and key colloids
    Dr. S. Sacanna (m) 21-05-1976, Universiteit van Utrecht -> New York University (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    In a near future 'smart' nanoparticles will be able to self-assemble into microscopic machinery. This research project aims to fabricate a first set of elementary “building blocks” capable of selectively recognizing and interacting with each other.

    Magnetisme beïnvloeden met een elektrisch veld
    Dr. Ir. W. Siemons (m) 28-04-1980, Universiteit Twente –> University of California te Berkeley (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    Structuren van dunne lagen met multiferroische materialen maken het mogelijk om magnetisme te beïnvloeden met elektrische velden. Dit onderzoek heeft als doelstelling om er achter te komen waarom deze structuren tot nu toe niet werken bij kamertemperatuur.

    Het ontwikkelen van gevoelige gassensoren
    Drs. S.M.F. van der Sneppen (v) 7-1-1981, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam –>University of Oxford (Groot-Brittanië), 24 maanden
    Optische gassensoren hebben vele mogelijke applicaties, maar de huidige gassensoren zijn niet erg gevoelig. Voor sporenanalyses, zoals de analyse van uitgeademde stoffen, het volgen van industriële gasfase processen en het meten van milieu-verontreinigingen, zullen de onderzoekers gevoeligere gassensoren ontwikkelen.

    Zelfverdediging voor planten: kleine reactieve moleculen ontcijferen
    Dr. S.H. Spoel (m) 04-09-1979, Duke University -> Duke University Biologie van Planten (Verenigde Staten) 24 maanden
    Planten kampen continu met ziekteverwekkers. Bij een infectie komen allerlei kleine reactieve moleculen vrij die gezamenlijk coderen voor zeer precieze verdedegings mechanismen. Dit onderzoek bestudeert hoe planten deze code van kleine moleculen ontcijferen en vertalen in een efficiënte afweer tegen ziekteverwekkers.

    Comparison of the gene regulatory programs of blood stem cells and megakaryocytes
    Dr. M.R. Tijssen (v) 28-08-1980, Universiteit van Amsterdam -> University of Cambridge (Groot Brittannië), 24 maanden
    Bloedvormende stamcellen zorgen voor de aanmaak van nieuwe bloedcellen. Tijdens dit proces wordt precies gereguleerd wanneer welke genen aan staan, anders kan leukemie ontstaan. Deze regulatie zal onderzocht worden door de voorloper van bloedplaatjes te vergelijken met stamcellen.

    Wnt secretion and gradient formation in Zebrafish
    Dr. P.T. Yang (v) 22-04-1977, -> University of Washington School of Medicine (Verenigde Staten), 24 maanden
    In animals, some cells produce Wnt proteins to instruct the growth of others. The researchers will analyze how Wnt proteins are secreted from producing cells, and how they form a gradient to regulate targeting cells.

    Slimme suikers tegen de griep
    Drs. Ing. T. Wennekes (m) 19-06-1979, Universiteit Leiden –> Vancouver (Canada), 24 maanden
    Miljoenen mensen worden jaarlijks geveld door de griep. Het virus verschijnt ook steeds in nieuwe vormen zoals de gevreesde Aziatische vogelgriep. De onderzoekers gaan een algemeen griep medicijn proberen te ontwikkelen, gebaseerd op een siaalzuur suiker, dat het virus uitschakelt door het te misleiden.

    Molecular regulation of peroxisomal translocation by ubiquitination
    Dr. C. P. (Chris Paul) Williams (m) 23-01-1980, Structure Biology Unit Hamburg -> Structure Biology Unit Hamburg (Duitsland), 24 maanden
    Peroxisomen zijn compartimenten die in veel celsoorten voorkomen. Stoornissen in hun functies zijn gerelateerd aan verschillende humane aandoeningen. De eiwitten, verantwoordelijk voor deze peroxisomale functies, worden na hun synthese in peroxisomen geïmporteerd. De onderzoekers zullen dit importproces en de factoren die hierbij betrokken zijn bestuderen.

  • Round 2

    Can I hitch a ride with somebody please?
    N.A.H. Agatz (m), 26-12-1978, Erasmus University Rotterdam -> Georgia Tech, School of Industrial and Systems Engineering (USA), 12 months
    Sharing car journeys ('ride-sharing') is a highly promising way of reducing pressure on the environment and the road network. The researchers shall develop methods which should make it possible for people to easily find a 'ride-share' in the future via their mobile phone.

    Nano-electronics with DNA
    Dr H.B. Akkerman (m) 07-06-1980, University of Groningen -> Stanford University, Chemical Engineering (USA), 24 months
    In the near future nanotechnology shall penetrate into every layer of our society. This requires new manufacturing methods for the associated electronics. The aim of this research project is to realise reliable electronics with the help of DNA and its characteristics.

    Rotation of stars in the formation of stars and planets
    S.H. Albrecht (m) 19-02-1976, Leiden Observatory -> Massachusetts MIT - Astrophysics and Space Research (USA), 24 months
    Stars and planets are born in rotating interstellar clouds. This research shall shed light on the formation and evolution of stars and planets with the help of new and detailed measurements of the orientation of the rotational axes of stars.

    Cell migration in view
    K.M. Bonger (f) 02-11-1980, Leiden University -> Stanford University (USA), 24 months
    The migration of cells is an important biological process that is involved in growth and diseases. The researchers shall develop a new method to study specific molecular changes at the front and rear of a migrating cell in order to determine the exact functioning of the proteins involved.

    Tissue morphogenesis in living fruit flies
    Dr F. Bosveld (m) 06-10-1977, University Medical Centre Groningen -> Institute Curie (F), 24 months
    Morphogenesis forms the basis for the development of fully functioning organs. With the help of advanced microscopes and software, the scientists shall for the first time study the behaviour of individual cells as they undergo morphogenesis in the growing tissues of living fruit flies.

    Genes that play a role in prostate cancer
    Dr M.T. Epping (f) 21-04-1978, Netherlands Cancer Institute -> Harvard University, Genetics (USA), 24 months
    Prostate cancer can develop due to mistakes arising in some genes. There are also genes which exert a protective effect against cancer. The researchers shall study three genes to understand how these influence the chance of developing prostate cancer.

    Smart birds learn to sing while sleeping
    S.M.H. Gobes (f) 28-02-1981, Utrecht University -> Harvard University (USA), 24 months
    At a young age, birds learn a song from their father just as children learn to talk by listening to their parents. The researchers want to understand how this memory of the song from the father is converted into an own song. In this research the learning process that takes place during sleep shall be studied.

    Cholesterol in the pancreas and type II diabetes mellitus
    W. de Haan (f) 12-9-1980, Leiden University Medical Centre -> University of British Columbia (CAN), 24 months
    Type II diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition which is often associated with disrupted cholesterol levels in the blood. This study shall investigate how processes involved in cholesterol storage in insulin-producing cells in the pancreas influence the development and treatment of type II diabetes mellitus.

    New treatment options for metabolic syndrome
    R.H.L. Houtkooper (m) 29-07-1981, AMC University of Amsterdam-> Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale the Lausanne, Interfaculty Institute of Bioengineering (CH), 24 months
    Metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and type II diabetes mellitus, is a frequently occurring problem in Western society. Besides calorie restriction and physical exercise there are few treatment options. The researchers shall investigate new targets in diabetic mice in order to develop new medicines.

    Arguing with if-then sentences in context
    J. Huitink (f) 17-10-1979, Radboud University Nijmegen -> Catholic University of Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Psychology (BE), 24 months
    A change in context, such as the addition of extra information, influences our willingness to draw conclusions from if-then sentences. Conclusions that previously seemed plausible, are then suddenly no longer acceptable. This study shall establish exactly which contextual factors are responsible for the withdrawal of inferences.

    Positive interactions and the response of food webs to increasing stress
    Dr S. Kéfi (f) 07-11-1981, Utrecht University -> Darmstadt University of Technology (D), 24 months
    The effect of human actions on ecosystems is continuing to increase. Ecosystems respond to this in different ways. Some ecosystems can unexpectedly and irreversibly change as a result of climate change or human actions. However, it is vitally important to understand and predict these sudden changes, as they can be associated with a great loss of ecological and economic values. Modelling studies have revealed that positive interactions between organisms (for example, vegetation that improves the local environment by increasing the amount of nutrients and water) are important mechanisms that can explain these drastic changes in ecosystems. This research shall examine these positive interactions in food webs and how they help us to understand how ecosystems respond to increasing stress.

    Rheumatoid arthritis
    F. Kurreeman (f) Leiden University Medical Centre -> Harvard Medical School (USA), 24 months
    One percent of the Dutch population suffers from the chronic autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. At present five genes are known to be associated with rheumatism. Among other things I shall investigate the genetics of several large patient-control cohorts. This shall lead to a better understanding of the disease process and that might contribute to the development of new treatments for rheumatism.

    Self-assembly on a colossal scale
    Dr. C. Lavigueur (f) 19-09-1981, Simon Fraser University -> RU, Chemistry (NL), 12 maanden
    Self-assembly is the spontaneous formation of complex ordered structures by small units such as molecules. The researchers will study the self-assembly of bio-hybrid compounds incorporating viruses that are approximately one hundred times larger than a typical small molecule.

    The interaction between ecology and evolution - Ecogenetic feedback and the structure of ecological communities
    Dr E. van Leeuwen, (m) 23-12-1977, University of London -> University of Groningen, Community and Conservation Ecology group (NL), 12 months
    Evolution and ecology influence each other. The evolution of new species can have important consequences for species already present, and conversely species already present can also prevent new species from developing and/or establishing elsewhere. In this study I shall develop mathematical and model-based methods to gain a better understanding of this interaction. These new methods can then be applied to improve our understanding of how the current species-rich living communities and ecosystems have evolved and how so many species can continue to live alongside each other.

    Single-molecule sensing by plasmonic nanocrystals
    Ms X.Y. Ling (f) 30-05-1979, UT -> University of California, Berkeley, Chemistry (VS), 24 maanden
    Detecting single molecule has been a challenge for scientists over many decades. This proposal aims to develop multicomponent anisotropic nanocrystals for advanced singlemolecule Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensing. The research will focus on the morphological-controlled synthesis and assembly multicomponent anisotropic nanocrystals to improve the SERS sensitivity.

    Bequeathing the self
    Dr S.J.M. Mareel (m) l5-07-1974, University of California, Berkeley, (USA) -> University of Groningen, Historical Dutch Literature (NL), 12 months
    In 1561 the Bruges rhetorician Eduard de Dene collected a large number of his poems in the strongly autobiographical Testament Rhetoricael. This study shall determine which factors were responsible for determining the image of the poet in this text.

    Less miles with virtual market places
    Dr M.R.K. Mes (m) 20-07-1976, University of Twente -> Princeton University (USA), 6 months
    Driving without cargo is a fact of life in transport. After all the influx and outflow of goods differs per region and not all transport jobs are known in advance. This study shall examine how the empty miles can be reduced by making use of virtual marketplaces.

    The Social Value of Privacy
    Dr. D. Mokrosinska (v) 22-08-1968, UvA -> The University of North Carolina, Department of Philosophy (VS), 11 maanden
    Violations of individual privacy are usually associated with damage to the interests of particular individuals whose privacy has been invaded. This research explores the idea that violations of individual privacy harm the interests of the society as a whole.

    The antiquity as an argument today
    Dr M. De Pourcq (m) 16-04-1979, Belgium, Catholic University of Leuven -> Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute of Historical, Cultural and Literary Studies (NL), 12 months
    During the development of a new scientific discipline or theory, views about the Greek and Roman antiquity often play a qualifying role. This research will search for methods to analyse the function of this 'classical tradition' in modern-day arguments.

    How gerberas make different types of flowers
    A.S. Rijpkema (f) 12-05-1979, Radboud University Nijmegen -> University of Helsinki, Applied Biology (FIN), 24 months
    What is usually seen as the gerbera flower is actually the inflorescence, built up from many small flowers. The flowers at the edge of this inflorescence are different from those in the middle. This study shall examine how genes regulate the location where each type of flower is formed.

    Overcoming T-cell dysfunction in tumor microenvironments
    Dr. C.Y.J. Shu (f) 17-09-1980, UCLA -> NKI, Immunology (NL), 12 maanden
    For T-cells to reject tumors they must maintain their effector function and overcome mechanisms of immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment. With the goal to enhance immunotherapy, this research project aims to identify metabolic stress pathways which affect T-cell function.

    Criminalized Minorities in the Underbelly of Sri Lanka's Democracy
    Dr. M. de Silva (f) 10-04-1965, UvA -> Columbia University, Southern Asian Institute (VS), 24 maanden
    This project examines the practices and popular representations of the Muslim criminal underworld in Sri Lanka as a vantage point from which to analyze the linkage between minorities, criminalization and state violence in post colonial democracy.

    Tickling plastics with light
    A.U. Stradomska, MSc (f) 09-03-1980, Kraków (Poland) -> RUG - Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials (NL), 12 maanden
    Plastics hold great potential as electronic and optical materials, for instance for making solar cells. To help to improve their design, the researchers will investigate what happens in and between molecules of these materials after shining light on them.

    From substrate to biomarker
    M. Verdoes, MSc (m) 06-03-1980, Leiden University -> Stanford University, Department of Pathology (USA), 24 months
    The diagnosis of cancer is important in the fight against it. Enzymes which are more active in cancerous tissue than in healthy tissue can serve as so-called biomarkers. The research shall focus on finding such enzymes and demonstrating whether these can be used as biomarkers.

    Diversity as a game
    Dr P.J. Vermeulen (m) 08-09-1977, Utrecht University -> Macquarie University, Comparative Ecology Group, Department of Biological Sciences (AUS), 24 months
    Competition between plants can be seen as a type of game: As long as the performance of others can be kept low, the winner does not have to achieve a high score. This research shall investigate how more than one species can win in such a situation.

    Do you prefer a hard or soft boiled egg?
    Dr I.K. Voets (f) 28-05-1980, Wageningen University and Research Centre-> University of Fribourg, AM Institute (CH), 24 months
    Protein mixtures play a key role in our lives, in the cells of our body and in our food. Structure and stability are vitally important. This research shall determine under which circumstances protein mixtures are stable or unstable, soft or hard, structured or unstructured.

    Implicit learning of an artificial recursive language
    M.H. de Vries, MA, MSc (f) 16-10-1979, University of Münster (D) -> Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics (NL), 12 months
    You can combine words into endlessly long sentences. This characteristic (recursion) is typical for the human linguistic competence and is learnt implicitly. Linguists and cognitive scientists shall allow study subjects to learn an artificial grammar whilst positioned in the MRI scanner so that they can investigate this implicit learning process.

    Cooperation between areas of the brain
    R.M. (Roel) Willems (m) 29-02-1980, Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour -> University of California, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, Department of Psychology (USA), 24 months
    We have a pretty good understanding of what different areas of the brain do. However, in order to be able to understand information in the world around us, different regions in the brain need to bundle their 'expertise'. How this cooperation arises is still not clear. This research shall examine how two of the systems in the brain cooperate.

    Dutch people as 'the Other'. Examining identity from a Hanseatic perspective in the late Middle Ages
    Dr J. Wubs-Mrozewicz (f) 28-12-1976, University of Groningen -> Leiden University (NL), 12 months
    Thinking in terms of 'them' and 'us' is an age-old phenomenon. This project analyses the images formed about the Dutch from the viewpoint of the Hanseatics in the late Middle Ages. Using Hanseatic sources, the role of identity and image in the relationships between these trading partners and rivals shall be investigated.

    Development of medicines against malaria
    A.W. van Zijl (m), University of Groningen -> ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (CH), 24 months
    The development of new medicines against malaria is an important objective in medicinal chemistry. The rational design of biologically active substances using molecular modelling of these substances in relevant enzymes can make a significant contribution to this development. IspE is a crucial enzyme for the malaria parasite and molecular modelling makes it possible to design inhibitors of this enzyme. The most promising compounds shall be synthesised and biologically tested. This shall hopefully lead to important new lead structures for malaria therapy. It might also lead to the validation of the rational design of medicines and to more knowledge about the interactions of molecules in enzymes in general, and in IspE in particular.

  • Round 3

    Iron in cells: from rust to functional proteinDr L.E. Bevers (f) 29-03-1978, Delft University of Technology -> Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (USA), 24 months

    Life is not possible without iron, yet free iron is also dangerous for cells. A storage protein that can hold 4500 iron molecules is nature's solution to this problem. The researchers are studying how this iron is once again released from this 'rusty' protein.

     

    Synthesis of the senses
    V.C. Blau (f) 27-08-1978, Maastricht University -> Vanderbilt University, Multisensory Research Laboratory (USA), 24 months
    As soon as we are born, we are bombarded with information from different senses. The aim of this project is to investigate how the brains of young children learn which information from the senses belongs together and which does not.

    Engineering a protein nanopore for catalysis on the single molecule level
    A.J. Boersma (m) 20-03-1979, University of Groningen -> University of Oxford, Department of Chemistry (GB), 24 months
    The stream of ions through a nanopore, a membrane protein, can be influenced by allowing reactions of organic molecules to take place in the pores. With this approach a chemical conversion at the level of a single molecule can be followed by measuring the conductance. In this project a catalyst shall be placed in a pore, thereby allowing catalysis to be studied at the level of a single molecule.

    The impact of frequency on borrowing
    Dr A. S. Dogruöz (f) 14-11-1976, Tilburg University -> University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Linguistics (USA), 12 months
    In the Netherlands, the Turkish language borrows elements from Dutch. This study shall investigate how the frequencies of words and combinations of words in spoken Dutch influence what is borrowed.

    Interactions in two spatial dimensions
    P.J.A. van Heijster (m) 10-09-1981, CWI (Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science, Amsterdam) -> Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics (USA), 24 months
    Localised 'patterns' such as waves and pulses can interact in an extremely complex manner: They can collide, repel each other, etc. These interactions are still scarcely understood. The researchers propose investigating this in a step-by-step manner with the aid of a specific model.

    Characterisation of (cancer) stem cells
    K.G.L. Hermans (f) 08-04-1976, Erasmus University Rotterdam -> Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Department of Cellular & Molecular Biology (CAN), 24 months
    Tissue is constructed from different types of cells, with stem cells forming the basis of this. The same is true for a tumour, the cancer stem cell. However, it is not clear what the difference is between a 'normal' and a cancer stem cell. This research project aims to shed light on this difference.

    Quantum theory and categorical logic
    C.J.M. Heunen (m) 21-03-1982, Radboud University Nijmegen -> Oxford University (GB), 24 months
    Quantum computers have the incomprehensible characteristic that q-bits do not have to be either 0 or 1. How do you describe such systems? How can you logically discuss these? What does mathematical proof mean in this setting? The researcher shall seek to find the logical structure of the quantum theory, and in so doing hopes to contribute to the information and communication technology of the future.

    Bending, knotting and stringing
    L. Hollands (f) 16-07-1981, University of Amsterdam -> California Institute of Technology, Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy (USA), 24 months
    How does the counting of surfaces in a six-dimensional space relate to the unravelling of knots in three dimensions? And what does it say about black holes? The researchers shall try to obtain more insight into mathematical structures that arise from the string theory.

    Mutations against infection
    F. van Maldegem (f) 14-01-1980, AMC, University of Amsterdam -> MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (GB), 24 months
    If the body becomes infected, antibodies must be made that are specifically targeted against the pathogens. B-lymphocytes in the lymph nodes mutate their own DNA for this purpose. The researchers shall study how the lymph nodes ensure that only the correct genes change.

    Managing Markets and Manners in Early-modern Europe and Japan
    D. Mervart (m) 21-06-1975, Chiba University (JP) -> UL, Japanese Studies (NL), 12 maanden
    The research traces parallels between moral and political debate responding to the rise of markets and social change in 18th-century Japan and Western Europe. It appears that it was the moral concern with 'commerce' as source of 'luxury' and 'corruption of manners' that shaped the vocabulary of political economy and sociology and that provides the most promising common ground for comparing the early modern intellectual and moral experience of these two distinct worlds.

    Mutant p53 in cancer
    Dr P.A.J. Muller (f) 07-10-1980, University Medical Centre Utrecht -> University of Glasgow, The Beatson institute for Cancer Research (GB), 24 months
    Tumours in which the protein p53 is mutated, spread at a dangerously rapid rate through the body. In this research project the mechanism behind this spread shall be studied and specific therapies to inhibit the spread of mutant p53 tumours shall be examined.

    The cause of ice ages
    A.W. Omta (m) 14-09-1978, VU University Amsterdam-> Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), 24 months
    For the past 2.5 million years ice ages have alternated with warmer time periods. During ice ages the CO2 levels in the atmosphere are lower than in the period between ice ages. This research shall analyse the role of the ocean circulation in these variations in CO2 level.

    Understanding photosynthesis: start small
    Dr B.F. van Oort (m) 01-03-1980, Wageningen University and Research Centre -> VU University Amsterdam, Department Biophysics (NL), 12 months
    The growing world population and welfare demands increasingly more energy, whereas at the same time CO2 emissions must be strongly reduced. The natural process of photosynthesis can help to achieve these objectives by producing fuel from water and CO2 using sunlight. The researchers want to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis. To this end they shall use advanced microscopy to study how photosynthesis works at the molecular level.

    Marsilio Ficino's Timaeus commentary: scientific speculations of a Renaissance interpreter
    J. Prins (f) 30-11-1967, Utrecht University -> Oxford University, Faculty of Philosophy (GB), 24 months
    This study into the Timaeus commentary of the Renaissance philosopher Marsilio shall, using a yet to be compiled critical edition, shall try to give answers to two questions: why as his starting point for his natural philosophy did Ficino prefer the scientific model from the Timaeus, even though that was no longer completely up to date, and why does his commentary shed light on tensions between the contending world views that would lead to rifts?

    Falling under the spell of mixed feelings
    Dr M. van Putten (f) 27-12-1979, Catholic University Leuven -> University of Amsterdam, Work and Organisational Psychology (NL), 12 months
    Passivity gets in the way of good decision making. This often occurs because there is no single clear reason for a choice (e.g. both options are equally attractive). The researchers shall examine whether mixed feelings are an important and as yet unrecognised cause of passivity.

    Insight into gamma-ray bursts
    Dr J. Racusin (f) 31-08-1981, Pennsylvania State University (USA) -> University of Amsterdam, Astronomy (NL), 12 months
    The most energetic explosions in the universe come from the dramatic deaths of certain types of stars. This research aims to understand how these objects work and why they are so unusual, by using multi-wavelength observations from ground and space-based telescopes.

    Computer quantifies injury due to chronic lung disease
    E. M. van Rikxoort (f) 22-04-1982, University Medical Centre Utrecht -> University of California Los Angeles, Department of Radiological Sciences, Thoracic Imaging Group (USA), 24 months
    Lung diseases can be visualised by making a 3-D image of the lungs. The researchers shall teach a computer to quantify abnormalities in these images in order to establish which medicines work best.

    The embarrassment of poverty: 'Native' Jewish responses to 'foreign' immigration
    Dr J. V. Roitman (f) 28-01-1971, University of Pennsylvania -> University of London (GB), 24 months
    An immigrating (poor) Jew was not particularly welcome in existing Jewish communities in Holland (17th century) and in London (19th century). The research shall consider all aspects of the 'welcome' of these ' foreign' Jews by their naturalised fellow believers.

    Increased quality of life for cancer survivors
    Dr I. Soerjomataram (f) 11-04-1977, Erasmus Medical Centre ->Harvard University, Harvard Initiative for Global Health (USA), 12 months
    Important developments in healthcare are leading to an increased chance of survival after colorectal cancer, yet it is not known if this results in an increase in healthy years of life. This study shall investigate whether an increase in survival is associated with an increase in healthy years of life after cancer.

    Islamic law in action
    N. Sonneveld (f) 08-07-1975, Leiden University -> University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies (GB), 13 months
    Islamic law is interpreted and implemented in different ways in various Muslim countries. The researcher wants to map and explain the differences by investigating how Islamic law is applied in court by judges, lawyers and justiciables.

    Emulsions in porous rocks
    J.H.B. Sprakel (m) 10-06-1980, Wageningen University and Research Centre-> Harvard University, Experimental Soft Condensed Matter Group (USA), 24 months
    The flow of fluids through porous materials is important in many situations, for example in oil extraction. The fluids concerned often contain particles which are of equal size to the pores. This research shall investigate how events at the level of the pores influence the behaviour of the flows at a larger scale.

    On the look-out: Immune detection of Candida albicans
    K. Strijbis (f) 16-05-1980, AMC University of Amsterdam-> Whitehead Institute (USA), 24 months
    Infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans frequently occur in patients with a weakened immune system. In healthy people yeast infections are prevented because cells from the immune system patrol throughout the body to detect, recognise and kill the yeast cells. Researchers shall study the molecules that play a role in this recognition process.

    European cyber-infrastructure for genotype-to-phenotype networks
    Dr M.A. Swertz (m) 13-03-1976, University Medical Centre Groningen -> European Bioinformatics Institute (GB), 24 months
    Recently, many new methods have become available for the study of genetic characteristics/diseases (phenotypes) such as asthma and diabetes. The development of these diseases is determined by several genes. If we are not careful then we will drown in the wealth of genetic, molecular and phenotypic information that the new methods are providing. This project shall investigate new bioinformatics methods for flexible software to combine data in a European context so that genotype-to-phenotype pathways can be mapped.

    Tibetan transcription of Tangut characters
    Dr C.P. Tai (m) 25-12-1977, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences -> Leiden University, Linguistics (NL), 12 months
    Tangut is an extinction medieval language in present-day North-West China. The language has a non-phonological character writing system, but the pronunciation of Tangut characters is unclear. From the ruin of Khara-Khoto 30 fragments have been obtained in which Tangut characters have transcribed phonologically with Tibetan spelling. This research shall study the sound of Tangut characters by analysing their Tibetan transcription.

    Relative adjectives in Dutch child language
    Dr E. Tribushinina (f) 04-09-1979, Utrecht University -> University of Antwerp (BE), 24 months
    Adults know that an elephant can be referred to as small compared to other elephants and a mouse as large compared to other mice. However, previous research has revealed that young children do not yet understand the relative nature of these adjectives. The researchers shall ascertain how the understanding of relative words develops in Dutch children.

    Danger of suffocation in warmed up streams
    Dr W.C.E.P. Verberk (m) 30-06-1976, Radboud University Nijmegen -> University of Plymouth, Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre (GB), 24 months
    Stream organisms can suffocate in warm water because the quantity of dissolved oxygen decreases, whereas their oxygen requirement increases. The researcher shall use measurements of oxygen use in the lab and the spread of oxygen in the field to predict whether climate change results in the suffocation of stream organisms.

    How age results in infertility
    Dr F.J. van Werven (m) 06-03-1979, University Medical Centre Utrecht -> Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The David Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research (USA), 24 months
    A special type of cell division is required for the production of reproductive cells. During the ageing process this cell division process goes wrong more frequently and can lead to genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome. This study shall determine which processes in ageing cells can go wrong during the production of reproductive cells.