Development as a Trojan Horse? Foreign Large-scale Land Acquisitions in Ethiopia, Madagascar and Uganda

Summary

This project examines the role of foreign large scale land acquisitions in shaping development, conservation and sustainability practices in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Uganda. The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented rise in foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa?s arable land, sparking new international debates about land grabbing. While proponents argue that land deals lead to economic growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection, detractors point to livelihood losses, cultural changes, land dispossession, and environmental degradation. However, an empirical basis upon which to prove or disprove such assertions is lacking. This project aims to fill this gap by generating an analytical and theoretical framework to analyse the global drivers and local impacts of large-scale mining in Madagascar, foreign food production in Ethiopia, REDD initiatives in Madagascar, and Chinese investments in Uganda's Lake Victoria Free Trade Zone.

The project integrates an interdisciplinary (history, anthropology, geography, GIS/Spatial Analysis, political science, ecological economics, linguistics) team of experts active in land studies. Results will be made available and discussed with all relevant stakeholders (smallholders, NGOs, government officials, policy-makers, private sector). Findings should reveal various local realities and implementation processes of land deals thus far lacking in the literature.

The research has four aims. First, we will analyse the global actors, networks and interests (e.g. political, economic, social, cultural, environmental) driving foreign land acquisitions, examining the role of the state, neoliberal reforms and donor interests in facilitating land access. Second, a grounded stakeholder analysis will detail local impacts, perceptions and responses to land deals. Third, we will map, through our theoretical model, zones of intermediality, the ontological grids of (inter)national - local stakeholder encounters where diverse ideologies, discourses and practices of land use and valuation are mediated. Fourth, we will use this model to capture commonalities between stakeholders and potential areas of contestation.

The four aims are anchored in two phases. Phase I (aims 1, 2) will construct an inventory of stakeholder land claims and intangible/material valuations of land (e.g. heritage, source of identity, biodiversity, food security). Phase II (aims 3, 4) will define zones of intermediality where various cultural paradigms and land claims meet on the same playing field, and imperatives of local cultural references, practices and discourses encounter those of external actors. We posit that this model will neutrally unravel the complexities of stakeholder interaction whilst identifying conflict resolution strategies to mitigate or resolve adverse impacts of land deals.

Output

Book or monography

  • J. Abbink, M. De Bruijn(2011): Land, Law and Politics in Africa. Mediating Conflict and Reshaping the State. , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, M. Kooy(2011): Eviction from the Chagos Islands: Displacement and Struggle for Identity Against Two World Powers pp. 293 , Leiden
  • K. Berhanu(2012): Economy of Agricultural Extension in Ethiopia: Economic Growth and Political Control
  • J. Abbink, T. Hagmann(2012): Twenty Years of Revolutionary?Democratic Ethiopia (special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies, vol. 5, no. 4). , London
  • K. Berhanu(2013): CAADP Ethiopia: A New Start?
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, G. Campbell, M. Lambek(2013): Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development pp. 252 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, C.W. Seagle, F. Krijtenburg(2013): Africa for Sale? Positioning the State. Land and Society in Foreign Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa pp. 304 , Leiden
  • Pr. K. Berhanu(2013): CAADP Ethiopia: A New Start? FAC Working Paper No 060 , Brighton, UK
  • R. Ramananarivo, J. Ramamonjisoa, C. Radimilahy(2014): La terre : à qui, pour qui, pourquoi? , Antananarivo 
  • Dr. K. Berhanu, B. Cooksey, B. Chisinga, C. Poulton, A. Loada, F.G. Mutebi(2014): The Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP): Political Incentives, Value Added and Ways Forward, FAC Working Paper No. 077 , Brighton, UK
  • T. Gebreegziabher, K. Berhany(2014): Socio-Economic Baseline Survey of Urban and Rural Households in Tana-Beles Sub-Basin, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia pp. 193 , Addis Ababa
  • Dr. K. Berhanu, T. Gebre(2014): Socio-Economic Baseline Survey of Rural and Urban Households in Tana Sub-Basin, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, FSS Monograph Series 10 , Addis Ababa

Chapter in book

  • M. Kaag, A. Teyssier, T. Dietz, T. Oestigaard, P. Burnod, R. Andrianirina Ratsialonana, S.J.T.M. Evers, K. Havnevik(2011): African Engagements: Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World. pp. 110 - 132 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2011): Eviction from the Chagos Islands: Displacement and Struggle for Identity Against Two World Powers pp. 241 - 271 , Leiden
  • Prof. J. Abbink(2011): Land, Law and Politics in Africa. Mediating Conflict and Reshaping the State pp. 213 - 239 , Leiden-Boston
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, M. Kooy(2011): Eviction from the Chagos Islands: Displacement and Struggle for Identity Against Two World Powers pp. 1 - 9 , Leiden
  • G. Pungetti, M. Andriamarovololona, G. Oviedo, J.P.G Jones, D. Hooke(2012): Sacred Species and Sites: Advances in Biocultural Conservation pp. 207 - 218 , Cambridge
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, S.J.T.M. Evers, G. Campbell, M. Lambek(2013): Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development. pp. 119 - 141 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, G. Campbell, G. Campbell, M. Lambek(2013): Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development. pp. 63 - 97 , Leiden
  • D. Cirillo, A.Y. Yade(2013): Donne, terre e mercati: Ripensare lo sviluppo rurale in Africa sub-sahariana pp. 131 - 150 , Padova
  • Dr. K. Berhanu, R. Bereketeab(2013): The Horn of Africa: Intra-State and Inter-State Conflicts and Security pp. 71 - 94 , London and Uppsala
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, C.W. Seagle, F. Krijtenburg(2013): Africa for Sale??: Positioning the State. Land and Society in Foreign Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa pp. 1 - 37 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, F. Krijtenburg, C.W. Seagle, F. Krijtenburg(2013): Africa for Sale??: Analysing and Theorizing Foreign Land Claims and Acquisitions pp. 275 - 301 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, S.J.T.M. Evers, G. Campbell, G. Campbell, M. Lambek, M. Lambek(2013): Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development. pp. 1 - 21 , Leiden
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, C.W. Seagle, G. Campbell, M. Lambek(2013): Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development. pp. 187 - 221 , Leiden
  • Prof. J. Abbink, T. Hagmann(2013): Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform pp. 1 - 16 , London – New York
  • Dr. K. Berhanu(2014): Post-Referendum Sudan: National and Regional Questions pp. 51 - 70 , Dakar
  • G. Yntiso, B. Zewde, K. Berhanu(2014): Diasporas, Development and Peace Making in the Horn of Africa pp. 122 - 161 , London
  • T.H. Rakotonirina, C. Radimilahy(2014): In La terre : à qui, pour qui, pourquoi? pp. 1 - 18 , Antananarivo 
  • L. Laakso, G. Yntiso, P. Hataniemi, B. Zewde, K. Berhanu(2014): Diasporas, Development and Peace Making in the Horn of Africa pp. 122 - 161 , London
  • T. Healy, F. Muttenzer, C.J. Gardner, N. Hockley, M. Gingembre, B. Ferguson, S.M. Smith, M.M. Andriamarovololona(2014): Governance for Justice and Environmental Sustainability: Lessons across Natural Resource Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa pp. 63 - 93 , Oxford and New York

Scientific article

Professional publication

Publication meant for a broad audience

Publications for the general public

  • M. Andriamarovololona, S.J.T.M. Evers, J. Maiyo, T. Atreso(2011): Title workshop: Development as a Trojan horse? Whose development is being served in foreign large-scale land acquisitions in Africa?
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2011): Zones of Intermediality? as analytical and theoretical tool to examine foreign large-scale land acquisitions.
  • S.J.T.M Evers(2011): Nomination for Evers’ work on foreign large-scale land acquisitions in Africa and the Indian Ocean.
  • A.B. v Stokkom(2011): The REDD+ pilot Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahemena: consequences for local land use practices.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2011): Member of editorial board of peer reviewed journal Madagascar Conservation & Development
  • K. v Dijck(2012): The Role of Brokers in Development Projects in Kenya: A Literary Study.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2012): Zones of Intermediality: as Analytical and Theoretical Tool to Examine Large-scale Land Acquisitions
  • J. Maiyo(2012): Development as a Trojan horse? The Role and Impact of Chinese infrastructure investment in East Africa.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2012): Programme Workshop: GIS and Stakeholder engagement.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2012): Programme Workshop: Analytical Tools to Research Foreign Large-scale Land Acquisitions
  • T. Atreso(2012): Development as a Trojan horse? Foreign Large Scale Food Production and Land Use in Ethiopia.
  • K. Berhanu(2012): Political Economy of Agricultural Extension in Ethiopia: Economic Growth and Political Control
  • M. Desmurger(2012): Translating the sustainability transition: The creation and implementation of a translocal environmental project, from Paris to Madagascar.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2012): Programme Masterclass: Network Analysis (ORA & Automap) master class by Professor Kathleen Carley.
  • K. Berhanu(2012): Economy of Agricultural Extension in Ethiopia: Economic Growth and Political Control
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2012): Programme Workshop: Research Programme Foreign Large-scale Land Acquisitions in Africa and Madagascar
  • K. Berhanu(2012): CAADP Ethiopia: A New Start?
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2013): Word Bank conference Land & Poverty (Washington, 8-11 April 2013).
  • M. de Reuver(2013): China’s Strategic Alliance With Africa, On the characteristics of Chinese engagements in Africa and how these evolve in the Tanzanian agriculture and infrastructure sectors
  • M. Andriamarovololona(2013): Panel presentation: Problématique du changement climatique à Madagascar.
  • M.M. Andriamarovololona(2013): Destitution amidst (bio)plenty: Irony of life in a Malagasy rainforest World Heritage
  • T. Atreso(2013): Participation multi-stakeholder conferences: 1)Large-Scale Agricultural Investments in Pastoral lowlands of the Horn of Africa", Addis Ababa University, Institute of Peace and Security Studies, April 2013.
  • C. Radimilany(2013): Professor Radimilahy adviced the "Comité de Révision des Textes sur le Foncier" and attended their two day workshop on the hamonization of Malagasy legislation with lived experiences of local farmers.
  • M. Andriamarovololona(2013): Oral presentation:
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2013): Investing in Africa
  • S.M.H. Meijers(2013): Land Tenure Dynamics in Contemporary Western Romania A Multi-Layered Perspective on Large-Scale Land Acquisitions.
  • A.C.P.J.E. Anemaet(2013): Imagined Futures versus Realities: The Role of Land in Malagasy Livelihood Strategies
  • C. Radimilahy(2013): Chantal Radimilahy becomes Membre titulaire de l’Académie Malgache.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, M.M. Andriamarovololona(2013): State-Building and Stakeholder Mediation Processes in ‘‘Resource Frontiers’’
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2013): In the eyes of the beholder: investigating research bias in ?land grab? literature.
  • T.W. Atreso(2013): Indigenous Institutions Amidst Large-scale Agricultural Investment: The Situation Of "Dereba" In Ethiopia
  • T.W. Atreso(2013): Using Zones of Intermediality to research large-scale land acquisitions in Africa.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2013): Post-Fieldwork Seminar VU & UvA Teams
  • T.W. Atreso(2014): Stakeholder workshop
  • J.K. Maiyo(2014): The role of local authorities in managing commercial pressures on Land: The case of Nakaseke district, Uganda
  • D.J. MacKinnon, S.J.T.M. Evers, Dr D. Close(2014): Foundation of Long March to Rome (LMR) Enterprises.
  • T.W. Atreso(2014): The First Come Last: Environmental Impact Assessment in Large-scale Land Acquisitions in Oromia Region, Ethiopia
  • J.K. Maiyo(2014): Stakeholder workshop
  • T.W. Atreso(2014): The First Come Last: Environmental Impact Assessment in Large-scale Land Acquisitions in Oromia Region, Ethiopia
  • LMR Enterprises(2014): The Long March to Rome promotional website
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2014): Large-scale land acquisitions in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Contours of a Phenomenon and its Debate
  • LMR Enterprises(2014): The Long March to Rome social media campaign (Facebook page, Youtube channel, Vimeo)
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2014): 1. Country Case Jatropha: Kenya 2. Multimodal Analysis of Media Representations of Jatropha
  • E. Kooter(2014): Student Internship
  • J.K. Maiyo(2014): Environmental governance and transnational Land Acquisitions in Central Uganda; the case of Nakaseke district
  • Prof. dr. J. Pronk(2014): Local Conflict and Conflict Management in a Global World
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2014): Africans and Hague Justice: Realities and Perceptions of the International Criminal Court
  • LMR Entrerprises(2014): The Long March to Rome: First Nations Resolution
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2015): Buitenlandse grootschalige landbouw in Afrika
  • J. Ijzerman(2015): 'Not every superhero wears a cape': Children's navigations in a context of deprivation and vulnerability in the municipalities of Tshwane and Ethekwini (South Africa).
  • J.K. Maiyo(2015): Rising powers: China's agrarian engagement in Uganda [Seminar]
  • T.W. Atreso(2015): Indigenous Institutions (Daraba) Amidst Large-Scale Land Acquisitions: Stakeholder Confluence In Changing Landscapes of Livelihood and ‘Reciprocity’ In Oromia (Ethiopia)
  • Dr F. Krijtenburg(2015): Discursive Hurdles in Stakeholder Interaction: A Case-Study of Development and Nature Conservation Debates in Tana Delta (Kenya)
  • L. v Breen(2015): The Many Faces of Solidarity: Community Building in a German Eco-farming Cooperative.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2015): Two conference panels on Grounded analytical approaches to stakeholder interaction in large-scale land acquisitions in Africa. In LANDac: International conference of land governance for equitable and sustainable development 8-10 Juy 2015.
  • J.K. Maiyo(2015): Environmental governance and transnational Land Acquisitions in Central Uganda; the case of Nakaseke district
  • J. Maiyo(2015): The Political Ecology of Transnational Land Acquisitions and Local Governance in Central Uganda.
  • D. Cirillo, S.J.T.M. Evers(2015): Merging Territoriality and Intermediality to study large-scale land acquisitions
  • S.J.T.M. Evers, C. Rabemanantsoa(2015): A la recherche du fiadanana ('bien-etre') dans une région affectée par le projet minier Ambatovy a Madagascar: les conceptions et médiations des parties prenantes.
  • J. Maiyo(2015): The Politics of Transnational Land Acquisitions in Uganda: Discourses of Legitimation and Stakeholder Relations in Nakaseke District.
  • R. Antwi-Bediako, D.N. Kobusingye, B.W. Sanou, G. vd Haar, G. Baltissen, R.T. Djomo, A. Salomao, J.K. Maiyo(2015): Governing Commercial Pressure on Land in Africa: What is the Role of Local Government?
  • M.M. Andriamarovololona(2015): An imperfect lens: macro and micro views of the Malagasy rainforest
  • C. Rabemanantsoa(2015): Seeking fiadanana ('well being') in Madagascar's Ambatovy mining project area: Stakeholder imagination and mediation
  • A.F. Oitavén(2015): Navigating Large-scale land debates: an ethnography of the creative outcomes of large-scale land acquisitions in the Nacala corridor (northern Mozambique)
  • Dr. K. Berhanu(2015): Large-Scale Foriegn Agricultural Investment in Ethiopia And Implications for Local Communities
  • J.K. Maiyo(2016): Power and Issues over 'Land grabs' [Seminar]
  • J.K. Maiyo(2016): Resource Extraction and Land Acquisition by East Asia in Africa [Seminar]
  • J. Maiyo(2016): The politics of large-scale land acquisitions in Uganda: Discourses of legitimation and stakeholder interactions in the Nakaseke District
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2016): Arrival of the Long March to Rome on 4 May 2016.
  • S.J.T.M. Evers(2016): Gathering of Nations in Florence (Italy) 30 April-3 May 2016.
  • S.J.T.M Evers(2016): Seeing Stakeholder Conflict and Connectivity in Land Grabs From a New Angle Through the 'Zones of Intermediality' Approach
  • D. Cirillo(2016): Deconstructing actors' positioning in disputed territories. Agribusiness and pastoralism in the Senegal River Delta
  • J.K. Maiyo(2016): Environment and Development [Lecturer in Course]
  • M.M. Andriamarovololona(2017): Governance of Malagasy forest: Land of the ancestors, naturalists’ promised land or no man’s land?

Details

Project number

W 01.65.333.00

Main applicant

Dr. S.J.T.M. Evers

Affiliated with

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Sociale en Culturele Antropologie (SCA)

Team members

N.A. Alebachew, M.M. Andriamarovololona, T.W. Atreso, Dr. F. Krijtenburg, Drs. J.K. Maiyo, C. Rabemanantsoa, C.W.S. Worth Seagle MSc

Duration

01/09/2011 to 31/05/2017