Gehonoreerde voorstellen MaGW Onderzoekstalent

15 juli 2013

Het Gebiedsbestuur Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen heeft een besluit genomen over de subsidievoorstellen van MaGW Onderzoekstalent 2013. Er zijn 111 aanvragen ingediend, waarvan 37 aanvragen konden worden gehonoreerd.

Hieronder vindt u een overzicht van de gehonoreerde aanvragen, gesorteerd op achternaam van de hoofdaanvrager.

Voor meer informatie kunt u contact opnemen met drs. Joris Voskuilen, tel. +31 (0)70 344 09 89, e-mail: j.voskuilen@nwo.nl

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A dynamic approach to analysing and predicting human behaviour after intervention
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. C.J. Albers, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. S. Klooster BSc, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Thanks to modern technology, research designs with "big data" - large volumes of measurements over time - become more and more abundant. For such data, classical statistical techniques often are inadequate or, at best, suboptimal. The aim of this project is to develop novel statistical techniques for big data with a longitudinal compartment; thus measuring changes over time. These novel techniques will accurately describe the complicated underlying longitudinal patterns. The techniques will be applied to one of the most fundamental challenges of our time: that of influencing energy consumption. Software will be developed allowing these models to be used by applied researchers.

Meta-analysis in the presence of publication bias and researcher degrees of freedom
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. M.A.L.M. van Assen, Universiteit van Tilburg
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. R. van Aert BSc, Universiteit van Tilburg
Two substantial and momentous problems in meta-analysis are publication bias and researcher degrees of freedom. Both problems result in overestimation of the effect size in traditional meta-analysis, particularly in small studies that are ubiquitous in psychology. This project proposes developing a new meta-analysis method that (i) detects publication bias, (ii) provides an accurate estimate of effect size whenever there is publication bias, and (iii) does not overestimate effect size in case of researcher degrees of freedom. The proposed method will be straightforward to implement since it only uses regular study characteristics used in any meta-analysis.

New Science for Global Sustainability? The impact, implementation and societal implications of new design principles for environmental research
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. F.H.B. Biermann, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. S. van der Hel BSc, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Large international research programmes have evolved as powerful actors that shape research agendas and influence intergovernmental negotiations. And yet, little systematic research is available on the role of these programmes in scientific knowledge production. In our project, we will systematically analyse the influence of global research programmes on scientific practices and on science-society interactions, focussing on relationships of power and resulting inequalities. To this end, we will combine qualitative research methods and network analysis in a series of in-depth case studies of research projects and programmes, all operating under the newly established overarching global environmental research alliance "Future Earth". 

Meditation or medication? Mindfulness training versus medication in the treatment of childhood ADHD.
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. E.I. de Bruin, Universiteit van Amsterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. R. Meppelink BSc, Universiteit van Amsterdam
ADHD is highly common in children (3-5%). Medication is often the treatment of choice, as it currently is most effective. However, medication takes only short-term effects, treatment adherence is often low and most importantly; medication has serious side effects. Therefore, there is a need for other psychological interventions for youngsters with ADHD. Mindfulness Training (MFT) is emerging as a potentially effective training for children with ADHD, and is based on Eastern meditation techniques. The aim of this study is to compare the effects (and cost-effectiveness) of MFT to those of medication in a RCT in children and adolescents with ADHD.

Comovement, Geography, and Investor Attention
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. M. Da Rin, Universiteit van Tilburg
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. Luo, Universiteit van Tilburg
There is substantial comovement among financial securities returns, well in excess of what is warranted by fundamentals. This places significant challenges to investors who want to diversify their portfolios, and represents a potential channel for financial contagion. This project aims to analyze excess comovement, and to test whether it can be accounted for by investor attention, using an empirical approach that relies on data about news coverage of individual firms in different geographical areas as a measure of attention, and exogenous drivers of news availability based on physical proximity and the cost of accessing newswires.

The benefits of marriage: a cross-national comparative perspective on health and earnings
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. P.A. Dykstra, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. S. de Hoon, Universitiet Utrecht
The proposed project employs a cross-national comparative perspective to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the benefits of marriage for earnings and health. The first aim is to examine the applicability of explanatory models in different national contexts. The second aim is to investigate the gendered nature of the benefits and their dependence on national contexts. The project moves beyond prior work on current marital status by investigating the benefits for people in the full spectrum of marital history. State-of-the-art Bayesian methods will be used to obtain unbiased multilevel coefficients on data from 15 countries.

Dynamics of memory: adaptation of mental schemas
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. G.S.E. Fernandez, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. N. Müller BA, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Prior knowledge, forming a mental schema, facilitates learning of new, related information. However, so far all studies ignored that schemas may dynamically adapt in response to new learning. Therefore, we propose to investigate schema adaptation and how this in turn influences future learning. After providing a basic framework for schema adaptation on a behavioural and neural level, we add evidence and translate it into an educational context. Together, this will provide a biologically plausible mechanistic account of dynamic interactions between new learning and schemas and the accompanying neural changes.

Sex Hormones, Lateralization and Cognitive Performance
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. R.H. Geuze, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. T. Beking, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to test this by 1) correlating existing data on prenatal hormone exposure with brain lateralization and cognitive performance in healthy children of 14-15 years; 2) analysing the association between brain lateralization and cognitive performance in transgender persons both before and after hormone treatment in childhood/puberty and adulthood, and in matched controls.

Organic Growth Of Groups: When And How Do Bystanders Become An In-group
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. E.H. Gordijn, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. A. Mourik Broekman BSc, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
This research investigates group growth, in particular the transition from small to large groups. We focus on processes in small groups that enable such transition. Small groups are formed 'organically' around interactions and interdependencies. We aim to show that bystanders can get psychologically involved in this, even without participating actively. Through emotional ; contagion and empathy, organic bonds can extend to bystanders. Psychologically, bystanders thus become part of an in-group. This process may, at a fundamental level, underpin a broad range of group growth phenomena and alter our understanding of large group formation.

Explaining cutback management strategies in public sector organisations: change leadership in times of crisis
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. S.M. Groeneveld, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. J.E.T. Schmidt BSc, Universiteit Utrecht
During the 1980s budgetary crisis public sector organisations have mainly relied on private sector cutback management strategies. Such private sector approaches are now increasingly seen as inappropriate in a public environment. This project assesses how the publicness of organisations affects the choice and implementation of cutback management strategies. It first maps strategies public managers use to implement cutbacks in public sector organisations. A comparative case study design is then used to examine the effect of publicness on strategy choice and implementation, looking at individual-level and organisational-level characteristics. Findings contribute to theory development in cutback management in public organisations. 

It Wasn't Me: Blame Avoidance. Ministerial survival and Political Accountability in the Netherlands
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. P. 't Hart, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. W.J.M. de Ruiter BA, Universiteit Utrecht
When government policies go sour, people get hurt, costs escalate, or programs conspicuously fail to deliver, questions of accountability become crucial in both the mass media and the formal political arena. Alleged wrongdoings and failures trigger calls for resignation of responsible office-holders. This study examines how office-holders anticipate and respond to such resignation pressures, and sets out to explain why only some office-holders are able to successfully whither these political firestorms. Combining and advancing the existing literatures on blame management and ministerial survival, this study offers an integrative account of what happens when account-giving becomes a paramount challenge for governments. 

Efficiency of Over-the-Counter Debt Markets
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. F.C.J.M. de Jong, Universiteit van Tilburg
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. A.C. Rapp BA, Universiteit van Tilburg
How securities are traded plays a critical role not only in price discovery but also in market stability. The recent financial crisis showed that over-the-counter (OTC) markets can quickly become disorderly, dysfunctional, and unstable. We want to evaluate if there is an optimal market design for secondary debt OTC markets. This research sets out to evaluate how specific features of (securitized) debt - collateral pools, bankruptcy remoteness, and a consortium of market makers - interact with the behavior of dealers. From our results we want to derive recommendations on how OTC markets can be can improved with respect to their stability.

Fluctuating expectations: the role of spontaneous neural activity in visual perception
Hoofdaavrager: Dr. F.P. de Lange, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. P. Mostert BSc, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Although it feels to us as if we perceive the external world objectively, perception is strongly influenced by prior expectations and beliefs (i.e. "priors"). How these priors are neurally implemented and combined with sensory input is still largely unclear. In the current proposal we focus on the role of spontaneous fluctuations of neural activity in perception. We hypothesize that these fluctuations constitute the "priors", which maintain an internal model of the environment. By studying their dynamics, relevance and implementation in the visual cortex, we hope to uncover a crucial computational role of spontaneous activity in embodying a prior world model.

The choice for child-care arrangements and consequences for the well-being of families
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. ir. A.G. van der Lippe, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. Verhoef MSc, Universiteit Utrecht
Non-parental child-care arrangements are important to parents' daily lives and the societal and scientific debate on its effects is ongoing. This study aims to explain the determinants and consequences of child-care arrangements for child and parental well-being by (i) introducing new determinants (e.g., non-standard work schedules), (ii) examining the interdependency between parents' work schedules, (iii) studying the parent-personnel relationship and (iv) contrasting the Netherlands with Finland and the UK. Structural equation analyses based on the 2013 'Families 24/7' (N=1,400 parents in the Netherlands, UK, and Finland) and 2006-2007/2010-2011 NKPS data (N=2,170 parents) will test the hypothesized paths and cross-country variations. 

Continuously Campaigning for Volatile Voters? How policy positions and leadership images affect citizens? vote intentions before and during election campaigns, the Netherlands 2006-2012
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. T.W.G. van der Meer, Universiteit van Amsterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. L. Aaldering MSc, Universiteit van Amsterdam
The Dutch electorate has become highly volatile. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent volatility is affected by leadership images and policy positions in the media, before and during campaigns. This study first performs content analysis of news between 2006 and 2012 to assess the attention to images and positions. Second, we study media effects by linking media reports to existing panel data 2006-2012 (95,485 respondents, 103 waves). Third, we study mechanisms that explain media effects, using another panel study collected during the 2012 campaign (5 waves). Finally, we conduct experiments to cross validate the results of earlier analyses.

Connective Routines. Effects of Work Routines on Service Innovations in Health Care
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. M. Noordegraaf, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. Kuiper BA, Universiteit Utrecht
Professional service organizations like hospitals, but also universities or law courts, try to deliver innovative services. Due to external pressures - cost constraints, client demands, risks - collaboration, efficiency and quality are called for. Generally, service providers focus on competencies of individual professionals to produce innovative services, irrespective of context. This research reframes the search for competency by focusing on work routines as contextualized and taken-for-granted activity patterns. Routines - especially connective routines - generate institutional competency. We study routines in hospitals and analyze their effects on health care innovations. We search for new understandings of organizational and professional logics and facilitate service innovation.

Economic Growth, Agglomeration, Networks and Related Variety in European Regions
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. F.G. van Oort, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mr. N. Cortinovis,
University of Trento
This project's main argument is that to overcome the seemingly impasse in agglomeration studies that try to explain why urban regions growth faster or are more productive than other regions, conceptual en empirical renewal is needed. Introducing related variety, spatial econometric modeling, and network dependence of regions, the project wants to empirically show that this renewal can be reached on a European regional scale, and that this serves recently advocated place-based development and smart specialization strategies. Determining the simultaneous influence of localized versus networked growth externalities (in trade, FDI and knowledge flows) enhances the debates on regional growth and resilience.

Economics and political violence
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. R.H. Oostendorp, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. T.B. Child, Tinbergen Instituut Amsterdam
Though political violence has been examined by economists, seldom have researchers questioned the supposedly beneficial relationship between economic development and political violence. Consequently, a view characterizing development as inherently pacifying dominates news, policy, and military action worldwide. We use panel data methods with a unique dataset on reconstruction projects, violence, and community preferences in Afghanistan and Iraq to assess whether reconstruction spending reduces political instability. Exploring the reverse effect of political instability on economic progress, we study the impact of revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia on changes in corporate cronyism using newly-collected data, network analysis, and impact analysis methods (difference-in-difference).

The best of both worlds: the interplay between self- and social regulation in teams
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. K.I. van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Universiteit Twente
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. Wijga, Universiteit Utrecht
In this project we focus on the extent to which self- and social regulated learning of team members in organizations enhance team innovativeness. We include important individual (e.g. pro-active personality, past learning initiatives) and team (e.g. team diversity, team climate) characteristics that possibly affect self- and social regulation and team innovativeness. A longitudinal mixed method design is used to study individual employees and teams while working at innovative products over a period of time to assess how the dynamic interaction between team self- and social regulation in relation to team innovativeness changes over time.

Parenting plans of Dutch divorced and separated parents: What, who and does it work?
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. A. Poortman, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. S. de Bruijn BSc, Universiteit Utrecht
Recent legislation obliges parenting plans for divorced/separated parents to minimize the adverse consequences of divorce. Yet, legal criteria are uncertain, parenting plans are not enforceable for cohabiters, and the mandatory nature of parenting plans may undermine their effectiveness. We examine: the prevalence and content of parenting plans (what); the correlates of parenting plans (who); and their consequences (does it work). We use data including: married and cohabiting parents who recently divorced/separated; parenting plans and survey-reports; and a control group of parents who divorced before the law. These data allow for an in-depth analysis of parenting plans, their correlates and effectiveness.

Access to the Supreme Court in Civil Matters: A Comparative Study
Hofdaanvrager: Prof. mr. C.H. van Rhee, Maastricht University
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Drs. P. Bravo-Hurtado, Catholic University of Valparaiso
The proposal aims at a comparative legal-historical study of access filters at the Supreme Courts in European and American jurisdictions. After studying the roles these courts were meant to fulfil according to their mainly 19th century origins, their changing roles in modern societies will be focused on within the context of the various mechanisms and theories on access to the supreme court. These mechanisms and theories will be evaluated from the perspective of a society under the rule of law. The research project not only aims at increasing academic knowledge but also at providing recommendations for reform projects

License to Sin: Examining short-term and long-term effects of justification on self-regulation
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. D.T.D. de Ridder, Universiteit Utrecht

Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. S. Prinsen MSc, Universiteit Utrecht
Self-regulation failure is often explained in terms of not being able to resist immediate temptations, resulting in impulsive behavior taking precedence over reflective considerations. Whilst the relative strength of impulses for gratification of desires has proven an important explanation for abandoning long-term goals, we posit that there is an additional but often overlooked explanation for self-regulation failure: when having a justification people may fail at self-regulation not because they cannot regulate themselves but because they choose not to. This project examines the immediate and long-term effects of engagement in justification processes on self-regulation success in health behavior and consumer behavior.

The Role of Human Freeze Reactions in the Development of Stress Symptoms: A Longitudinal Approach
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. K. Roelofs, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. H.C.M. Niermann BSc, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Early freeze-reactions are predictive for stress-related behaviour in animals, but remain unstudied in humans. The central aim of this research program is to examine the development of human freeze-reactions in relation to the development of stress-related psychopathology. It involves systematic inves-tigations of human bodily freeze-reactions to threatening stimuli at various time points in a unique longi-tudinal study, testing adolescents at a critical transition stage in their lives, between age 14 and 17. The project will not only advance theoretical insights in the development of human freeze-reactions. It will also contribute to defining risk markers for the development of stress-related symptoms.

Modulating anticorrelated networks in early Alzheimer's disease 'a simultaneous TMS-fMRI approach
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. A.T. Sack, Maastricht University
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. H. Lückmann BSc, Maastricht University
Promising approaches in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research investigate the role of brain disconnection and network changes in disease development. Findings indicate that disruptions in the anticorrelated frontoparietal and default mode network play a role in this. However, the causal mechanisms underlying the network dynamics, and the causal involvement of network functionality in cognitive function have not yet been tested. The proposed project aims to investigate these causal mechanisms in healthy subjects and early AD patients, employing advanced neuroscientific methods, including simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging. Results will contribute to the understanding of AD and to future treatment development.

Unraveling the biopsychosocial factors of fatigue and sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. S.Z. Stapert, Maastricht University
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. B. Aben MSc, Maastricht University
Fatigue and sleep complaints are common disabling symptoms that affect the recovery course and rehabilitation outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fatigue and sleep complaints are conceptualized as primary effects of the neurotrauma itself or as secondary to neuropsychiatric effects associated with TBI. The four proposed studies of this project are based on a biopsychosocial explanation of post-TBI fatigue and sleep complaints, with a focus on cognitive and physical fatigue, mood, and personality. Subjectively reported signs of fatigue and sleep complaints will be related to objective measures through a combination of behavioural and neurophysiological studies.

Contracts, deals and bargains: negotiating by public servants
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. S. van Thiel, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. R.B. Bouwman BSc, Universiteit Utrecht
As many public services are contracted out, public servants have to negotiate more often. However, negotiation skills are seldom taught in public administration curricula. Moreover, the bargaining literature does not pay attention to the effects of public sector context on negotiation process and outcomes. We argue that characteristics such as serving public instead of individual interests will affect public servants preferences for specific outcomes. The need for public accountability will induce risk-averse strategies. The proposed study aims to develop new theory on negotiations by public servants. Hypotheses will be tested in experiments, a novelty in public administration research.

Economic consequences of public oversight of the auditing profession: Insights from the capital market.
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. A. Vanstraelen, Maastricht University
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. L. Zou, Maastricht University
In response to high-profile financial reporting scandals, one of the most profound changes in audit regulation of the past decade is the instalment of public oversight of the auditing profession. The objective is to ensure trust in the financial markets and enhance investor protection and the public interest. Motivated by the debate on the effectiveness of public oversight, which is not uncontested, and the paucity of empirical evidence, the proposed research investigates economic consequences of public oversight and specifically the impact of disclosure of inspection outcomes on information asymmetry and the cost of capital in the equity and debt market.

Pre-insolvency arrangements with creditors: how can they be accommodated in Dutch (insolvency) law?
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. mr. P.M. Veder, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. E.N. Janssen, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Insolvency of companies causes financial and economic damage, for example to a company's employees and its suppliers. Such damage and loss of value can be mitigated if instruments are in place that enable companies to restructure liabilities outside the framework of formal insolvency proceedings. At present the possibilities under Dutch law for concluding such pre-insolvency arrangements with creditors are very limited. The lack of adequate restructuring instruments and the consequences thereof have become more conspicuous due to the economic downturn. The proposed research aims to assess how a pre-insolvency arrangement with creditors can be accommodated in Dutch (insolvency) law.

Antecedents and consequences of adolescents' prosocial relationships: Peer group dynamics at the individual, dyadic, network, and contextual level
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. D.R. Veenstra, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. L. van Rijsewijk BSc, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
This proposal aims to investigate antecedents and consequences of adolescents? prosocial relationships with peers. I extend previous research by focusing on prosocial relations rather than prosocial behavior as individual outcome, and investigating their development in the peer context. Using longitudinal social network analyses, the purpose of this project is examining (1) antecedents of prosocial relationships; (2) interplay of prosocial relationships with friendships and antipathies; (3) classroom norm influences on this interplay; and (4) consequences of prosocial relationships for behavioral adjustment. Together, the results of these studies provide key insights into initiation, development, and significance of adolescents? prosocial relationships with peers.

Food security, governance and embedded coordination in value chains: understanding institutional viability in the Ugandan oilseed sector
Hoofdaanvrager: Dr. ir. S. Vellema, Wageningen Universiteit & Researchcentrum
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. Schoonhoven-Speijer MSc, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Food security depends on farming and on how food materials become available for processing and marketing. The practice of collecting food materials, or bulking, links farmers, traders and processors. The research aims to understand how and why such a multifaceted practice, involving coordination between actors, becomes institutionally viable. Case-studies of bulking advance an interdisciplinary understanding of governance. A comparative approach unravels how bulking is embedded in social networks and institutions. A longitudinal perspective reveals how bulking practices stay intact despite external pressures. The institutional perspective has relevance for development practice and policy targeting interventions to collective marketing and value chains.  

Towards a better understanding of aspects that trigger firm-specific volatility
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. M.J.C.M. Verbeek, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. R. Verbeek MSc, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
In financial crises stock markets are very volatile: increasing suddenly to decrease drastically several days later. To understand volatility in financial markets one needs to analyze its two components. Systematic volatility on the one hand refers to macroeconomic conditions, such as the collapse of the housing market. The other component is idiosyncratic volatility: this refers to firm-specific conditions such as the introduction of a new product or the dismissal of a CEO. Although idiosyncratic volatility represents the largest share of the total volatility of a stock, it has received little academic attention so far. The main objective of this research proposal is to analyse why macroeconomic variables explain the variation in idiosyncratic volatility. Two methods will be used: a quantitative analysis using four different asset pricing models and a qualitative analysis by means of interviews with managers to understand the financial decisions they make that lead to idiosyncratic volatility. The project will allow us to better understand the underlying conditions that trigger market volatility and indirectly financial crises.

Multiple imputation of nested missing data using extended latent class models
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. J.K. Vermunt, Universiteit van Tilburg
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. D. Vidotto, Università degli Studi di Padova
Social science researchers often make use of multilevel and longitudinal data sets, in which the occurrence of missing data is a well known problem. To prevent biased results, it is important to deal with missing data in an appropriate manner. This project develops new multiple imputation methods for such nested missing data using extended latent class models. These models can capture dependencies between observations within groups (within individuals in the longitudinal case) and deal with (possibly missing) variables measured at different hierarchical levels. The new imputation methods will be implemented in a freely available R package.

Decisions from Experience and a Descriptive Study of Ambiguity
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. P.P. Wakker, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Drs. I. Aydogan, Tinbergen Instituut Amsterdam
This project combines a new ambiguity (decisions with unknown probabilities) theory (source method for prospect theory) with the new decisions-from-experience theory (DFE). The source method is the first tractable descriptive ambiguity theory. DFE provides new and more realistic stimuli for experiments, uncovering many new phenomena. DFE has only been examined using risk theories, but ambiguity theories are more appropriate. Thus DFE benefits from ambiguity theories, and the latter benefit from the realism of DFE. We will develop better tests,and theoretical foundations for new ambiguity concepts introduced by the source method. Those concepts include insensitivity and reference dependent ambiguity.

Peer influence on underachievement of excellent students in secondary education
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. M.P.C. van der Werf, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. J.I.S.M. van Leeuwen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Approximately 30% of the students who are indicated as excellent at the end of primary education do not have optimal educational careers in secondary education; they either retain a class or graduate from lower educational levels than expected. Next to intelligence, self-regulation is an important predictor for academic achievement, suggesting that highly intelligent students with suboptimal educational careers might have self-regulation deficits during adolescence. At this age students are sensitive to peers who usually do not admire excellent study behavior. This study aims to explain underachievement of excellent students in secondary education through peer influence processes on self-regulating behavior.

A data-driven approach to reveal facial expressions that predict deception judgments
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. D.H.J. Wigboldus, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. L. Jansen BSc, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Extant research shows that people do not detect lies accurately from facial expressions, probably because they attend to cues not diagnostic for lying or because consistently diagnostic cues have not been studied yet. Which expressions, then, predict deception judgments? We suggest that, as yet, the investigated set of expressions is biased due to methodological limitations. We propose to investigate which facial expressions predict deception judgments using reverse correlation, a data-driven technique that is unbiased compared to previous methods. By using dynamic, animated facial expressions, we can model expressions that are diagnostic for deception judgments during deliberate and more intuitive processing.

Alternative fiscal and monetary policies under financial fragility and sovereign default risk in a currency union (eurozone)
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. S.J.G. van Wijnbergen, Universiteit van Amsterdam
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Dhr. C.G.F. van der Kwaak MSc, Universiteit van Amsterdam
In the proposed research we will investigate the intermingling of financial crises and sovereign default risk. The current eurozone crisis shows the interconnection between problems in the financial sector, which can start a recession, and fiscal problems, which are exacerbated by a recession, but in turn may complicate financial bail outs necessary to resolve the initial financial sector problems. By developing a two country model that contains a financial sector that is balance sheet constrained, and governments that may default, we can replicate the current eurozone troubles and assess different government policies to solve the current crisis.

Governing climate change? Climate change adaptation policies and local resilience in Cambodia and Lao PDR
Hoofdaanvrager: Prof. dr. E.B. Zoomers, Universiteit Utrecht
Uitvoerend onderzoeker: Mw. M. McLinden Nuijen, Universiteit Utrecht
This project will obtain, apply and share in-depth knowledge of how International and National-level climate change adaptation policy impacts rural groups (relating to gender, generation, socioeconomics and ethnicity) at the local level in two countries facing significant climate change risks: Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Main questions are 1) How do International climate change discourses shape National-level climate change policy and 2) How do these policies enhance or undermine local maneuvering space, adaptation strategies and thus resilience? This helps to bridge the gap between discursive dynamics and the local resilience reality for more inclusive climate change policies.

Bron: NWO