Vici awards 2016

A list of the 34 Vici laureates, working titles and a brief summaries of the research projects is given below. The laureates are also listed per NWO domain. Vici, along with Veni and Vidi, is a part of NWO's Innovational Research Incentives Scheme programme.

Facts and Figures

Total preproposals: 235; 161 male (69%) and 74 female (31%)
Total (eligible) applicants: 138
Number of awards: 34; 12 female (35%) and 22 male (65%)
Total award rate: 14.5%
Percentage awarded (women): 16%
Percentage awarded (men): 14%



Alphabetical list by researcher's surname

B

It takes two to communicate: Voice perception and linguistic content
Prof. D. (Deniz) Başkent (f), UMCG – Ear, Nose and Throat
Talking is what makes us human, but hearing impairment can lead to long-term loss of the ability to hear others' voices. While this is often seen as a disability, in this project we use the effects of hearing impairment to investigate the value of voice perception in speech communication.

Sarcoma modelling towards patient specific treatment
J.V.M.G. (Judith) Bovée, M.D., Ph.D. (f), LUMC – Pathology
Sarcomas are rare cancers that are difficult to diagnose and treat, as >50 different subtypes are recognised. Molecularly, three main genomic mechanisms are distinguished. Therefore, three functional cell-of-origin based models will be generated. The identified crucial pathways will be manipulated in patient derived tumor tissue, to explore possibilities for therapy.

Deciphering the systems that control epithelial cell polarity
Dr M. (Mike) Boxem (m), UU – Biology
The ability to polarise and establish functionally distinct domains is an essential property of mammalian cells. The main polarised cell type of the body is the epithelial cell. Loss of epithelial polarity contributes to several diseases, including cancer. The research proposed here aims to elucidate how epithelial cells polarise.

Magnetic monopoles for low power electronics
Prof. A. (Alexander) Brinkman (m), UT – Physics
The electron's electric charge forms the basis of electronics. For a new class of topological materials, it has been predicted that magnetic charge exists. Researchers will try to detect these so-called magnetic monopoles and control such that these can form the basis for low power electronics.

Human Genes and Intracellular Phenotypes
Dr T. (Thijn) Brummelkamp (m), Netherlands Cancer Institute Genetics
Assigning functions to genes remains challenging in genetics. Genes can affect numerous processes. This can depend on the activity of other genes and differ amongst individuals. This study will assign a wealth of molecular traits to human genes and study how the consequences of disease mutations are affected by other genes.

Today's youth is tomorrow's workforce
Prof. U. (Ute) Bültmann (f), RUG – Health Sciences
Today, young workers have to deal with changing work and labour markets. Maintaining a healthy working life is important for individuals and society. The researchers will assess mental health and work challenges with a life course lens to support young people transitioning into work and to facilitate a healthy working life.

C

Signing across borders
Dr O.A. (Onno) Crasborn (m), RU – Centre for Language Studies
Each country has its own sign language. Yet deaf people can communicate with signers from other countries with remarkable ease. Why is this so? We will try to investigate how successful they actually are, and which strategies both deaf people and interpreters use to achieve successful communication across linguistic borders.

D

From gloomy to cheerful
Prof. P.M.A. (Pieter) Desmet (m), TUD Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering
Why do some products have a positive and others a negative influence on our mood? This project will investigate how products and spaces can be designed to actively contribute to a positive mood.

E

The power of expectations
Prof. A.W.M. (Andrea) Evers (f), UL – Health, Medical and Neuropsychology
Insufficiently explained somatic symptoms are highly prevalent and have a major impact on patients and society. This project studies the role of negative expectations in the onset, course, and recovery of such somatic symptoms, by means of innovative psychological and neurobiological methods and treatments.

F

Molecular structure of mitochondria studied using cryoelectron tomography
Prof. F.G. (Friedrich) Förster (m), UU – Chemistry
The most direct way to study the structures of molecules in our cells is to look at them at high magnification. This is what researchers do with an electron microscope for mitochondria, the power plants of our cells. The obtained results may help understanding the molecular reasons for aging.

G

The curious case of autism and aging
Prof. H.M. (Hilde) Geurts (f), UvA Psychology
With increasing age, people's cognitive skills decline. How fast this occurs, differs among people and depends on a variety of factors. Whether having autism is a risk-factor for accelerated aging or a potential protective factor is unknown. In this project this will be tested and influential factors will be determined.

Strongly Coupled OPtoElectronics (SCOPE)
Prof.  J. (Jaime) Gómez Rivas (m), DIFFER
Researchers will create a hybrid state of light and matter to improve the diffusion of excitons (bound states of electrons and electron holes) in materials. Enhancing transport of electrical charges in matter is a major goal to improve optoelectronic devices, e.g., solar cells, LEDs, lasers, photodetectors.

H

Cosmic neutrinos: a new tool for physics and astronomy
Dr A.J. (Aart) Heijboer (m), Nikhef
Neutrinos are ghostly elementary particles. A massive neutrino detector at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea will detect neutrinos from outer space. As a result, we will increase our understanding of the spectacular astrophysical objects from where neutrinos originate. In addition, we will be able to unravel the mysterious properties of the neutrinos themselves.

The right treatment for the right patient
Prof. A.I. (Anneke) den Hollander (f), RadboudUMC Ophthalmology
The most common cause of vision loss is age-related macular degeneration. For different subgroups of patients an eye-on-a-chip will be developed to realistically mimic the disease. The device can be used to test new drugs, and in the future will help to give the right treatment to the right patient.

How large is the global environmental footprint of renewable energy sources?
Prof. M.A.J. (Mark) Huijbregts (m), RU – Environmental Science
The environmental footprint of a technology depends on many different factors. This research shows how information about location, time and type of technology can be used to reliably predict the environmental footprint of renewable energy technologies compared to their non-renewable counterparts for all possible locations on earth.

Mercedes: Maximal Reliability of Concurrent and Distributed Software
Prof. M. (Marieke) Huisman (f), UT – Formal Methods and Tools
Developing reliable software remains a major challenge. Modern programming languages allow a program to take different execution steps in parallel, which increases the risk of errors. The Mercedes project develops new techniques that enables software developers to reason about the desired program properties, thus making software more reliable.

Dark matter at the LHC
Dr W.D. (Wouter) Hulsbergen (m), Nikhef
Scientists are deeply puzzled by the movement of stars in the sky. Galaxies seem surrounded by a cloud of 'dark matter' that pulls at stars but remains otherwise invisible. In this study physicists look for traces of dark matter in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva.

J

Dealing with Disasters in the Netherlands. The Shaping of Local and National Identities, 1421-1890
Dr L.E. (Lotte) Jensen (f), RU – Language and literature studies
Disasters have a major impact on societies. They are not only destructive, but also create communal bonds. This project investigates how local and national identities were shaped in response to natural disasters in the Netherlands, starting with the St Elisabeth’s Flood of 1421 and ending with the Severe Winter of 1890.

K

Cold Opto-Magnetic Switching at the Edge of Time
Dr A.V. (Alexey) Kimel (m), RU – Institute for Molecules and Materials
Spins (elementary magnets) in magnetic materials are strongly coupled by the exchange interaction – one the strongest quantum forces. Here we aim to develop methods to control this force by light. Through this research we hope to achieve the fastest possible and the most energy efficient magnetic data storage.

M

The parenting origins of prejudice
Prof. J. (Judi) Mesman (f), UL – Institute of Education and Child Studies
Children often have the same opinions and prejudices about groups of people as their parents. There are indications that parents transmit these consciously and unconsciously. However, we do not know how this transmission works exactly. In this project we investigate how ethnic prejudice is taught through parenting.

Microbial electricity: a surprise from the seafloor
Dr F.J.R. (Filip) Meysman (m), UvA – Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics
In the seafloor bacteria are present that generate electrical currents over long distances, and this dramatically influences the ecology and geochemistry of the seafloor. This Vici project will elucidate how this newly discovered 'electrical biosphere' functions. This research may eventually lead to entirely new conducting materials and bio-electrical applications.

O

Visual scanning from the corner of the eye
Prof. C.N.L. (Christian) Olivers (m), VU – Experimental and Applied Psychology
Humans can effectively scan their visual environment. Visual scanning is largely determined by peripheral vision – that is, what we can see from the corner of the eye. This program investigates the relationship between peripheral perception and visual scanning in both behaviour and brain.

Cities of refuge: local governments and the human rights of refugees in Europe
Prof. B.M. (Barbara) Oomen (f), UU – Law, Economics and Governance
International human rights law and local governments. The refugee crisis poses large challenges upon cities, which respond very differently. This is why 'Cities of Refuge' investigates the potential meaning of human rights for how cities throughout Europe welcome and integrate refugees. This strengthens these processes, and innovates human rights research.

P

Greener medicines
Prof. G.J. (Gerrit) Poelarends (m), RUG – Chemical and Pharmaceutical Biology
Gamma-aminobutyric acids represent abundantly prescribed drugs, which are broadly applied as anticonvulsants, antidepressants and for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this VICI project, the researchers will develop novel enzymatic synthesis routes for the greener, more sustainable and more step-economic production of these important pharmaceuticals.

R

Small RNAs with a large impact on virus spread
Dr R.P. (Ronald) van Rij (m), RadboudUMC
Mosquitoes transmit important viral pathogens, such as the Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses. The immune system of the mosquito recognizes viral RNA and degrades it into small RNAs. The scientists will study unexpected novel functions of small RNAs in gene regulation and inheritance of antiviral immunity.

The stopwatch in our brains
Prof. D.H. (Hedderik) van Rijn (m), RUG – Psychometrics & Statistical Techniques
Optimal human behavior strongly depends on the accurate estimation of short intervals. Yet, scientists don't know how the stopwatch in our brain functions. In this project, scientists will construct a computer-model of our brain and explain how we can utilise time for optimal behavior, and how to become better timers.

Does medication breed weak animals and vicious parasites?
Dr J. C. (Jacobus) de Roode (m), UvA – Faculty of Science
Humans routinely use drugs to treat their own diseases and those of their agricultural animals. But what are the long-term consequences for health? The researchers will study monarch butterflies, which use medicinal plants to fight their parasites, to ask whether drug use leads to weakened immunity and more severe disease.

Citizenship Discourses in the Early Middle Ages (400-1100)
Dr H.G.E. (Els) Rose (f), UU – Institute for Cultural Inquiry
'Citizenship' is usually associated with cities or states, less so with the early medieval West. Nevertheless, citizenship discourse is found in the post-Roman world in sources that express changing social and cultural identities, where the terminology rooted in ancient citizenship discourses underwent a radical change of meaning.

S

Making Majestic Mountains
Dr W.P. (Wouter) Schellart (m), VU – Earth Science
The biggest mountains on Earth, the Andes and Himalaya, formed over tens of millions of years. The forces responsible for building these mountains remain unclear. This proposal will investigate the role of subducting tectonic plates and deep mantle flow in constructing and shaping these spectacular mountain ranges.

Mind the Body in Healthcare
Dr J. (Jenny) Slatman (f), UvT Humanities
Because healthcare considers the body mainly in terms of a biological thing, various embodied dimensions of health problems go off the radar. Somatic problems are often given psychological explanations and mental problems are increasingly seen as brain deficiencies. This project will develop a broader view on embodiment.

T

How we shape our children's brains. From early life adversity to adolescent depression
Prof. H. (Henning) Tiemeier (m), EMC – Child Psychiatry
Many children experience adversities such as harsh parenting, neglect, or bullying. The researchers follow more than 4,000 children from fetal life forward to examine if negative experiences change brain development and whether this leads to adolescent depression. The researchers also test which supportive factors buffer adversities.

Antimatter matters
Dr N. (Niels) Tuning (m), Nikhef
How do quarks 'feel' each other? Elementary particles 'feel' each other by exchanging force particles, or through the recently discovered Higgs boson. The Higgs boson gives mass to the particles, but is also at the source of small differences between matter and antimatter. Is this the key to better understand the Universe?

V

SUMO wrestling drives cell division
Dr A.C.O. (Alfred) Vertegaal (m), LUMC – Molecular Cell Biology
Communication in cells occurs via complex modification of proteins by chemical modifications and small proteins. These modifications regulate cell division in an intriguing interplay that will be investigated in this project. Novel insight obtained could be instrumental to develop novel anti-cancer therapies.

W

Monitoring Evidential Flow: New Bayesian Methods for Medicine and Psychology
Prof. E.-J. (Eric-Jan) Wagenmakers (m), UvA - Department of Psychological Methods
Innovative research deserves a coherent statistical analysis. This proposal aims to develop and disseminate new coherent analyses with important applications in medicine and psychology. Coherent analyses allow doctors and researchers to quantify evidence and monitor its flow as the data accumulate.

Sorted by NWO domain


Science

Deciphering the systems that control epithelial cell polarity
Dr M. (Mike) Boxem (m), UU – Biology
The ability to polarise and establish functionally distinct domains is an essential property of mammalian cells. The main polarised cell type of the body is the epithelial cell. Loss of epithelial polarity contributes to several diseases, including cancer. The research proposed here aims to elucidate how epithelial cells polarise.

Magnetic monopoles for low power electronics
Prof. A. (Alexander) Brinkman (m), UT – Physics
The electron's electric charge forms the basis of electronics. For a new class of topological materials, it has been predicted that magnetic charge exists. Researchers will try to detect these so-called magnetic monopoles and control such that these can form the basis for low power electronics.

Human Genes and Intracellular Phenotypes
Dr T. (Thijn) Brummelkamp (m), Netherlands Cancer Institute Genetics
Assigning functions to genes remains challenging in genetics. Genes can affect numerous processes. This can depend on the activity of other genes and differ amongst individuals. This study will assign a wealth of molecular traits to human genes and study how the consequences of disease mutations are affected by other genes.

Molecular structure of mitochondria studied using cryoelectron tomography
Prof. F.G. (Friedrich) Förster (m), UU – Chemistry
The most direct way to study the structures of molecules in our cells is to look at them at high magnification. This is what researchers do with an electron microscope for mitochondria, the power plants of our cells. The obtained results may help understanding the molecular reasons for aging.

Strongly Coupled OPtoElectronics (SCOPE)
Prof.  J. (Jaime) Gómez Rivas (m), DIFFER
Researchers will create a hybrid state of light and matter to improve the diffusion of excitons (bound states of electrons and electron holes) in materials. Enhancing transport of electrical charges in matter is a major goal to improve optoelectronic devices, e.g., solar cells, LEDs, lasers, photodetectors.

Cosmic neutrinos: a new tool for physics and astronomy
Dr A.J. (Aart) Heijboer (m), Nikhef
Neutrinos are ghostly elementary particles. A massive neutrino detector at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea will detect neutrinos from outer space. As a result, we will increase our understanding of the spectacular astrophysical objects from where neutrinos originate. In addition, we will be able to unravel the mysterious properties of the neutrinos themselves.

How large is the global environmental footprint of renewable energy sources?
Prof. M.A.J. (Mark) Huijbregts (m), RU – Environmental Science
The environmental footprint of a technology depends on many different factors. This research shows how information about location, time and type of technology can be used to reliably predict the environmental footprint of renewable energy technologies compared to their non-renewable counterparts for all possible locations on earth.

Mercedes: Maximal Reliability of Concurrent and Distributed Software
Prof. M. (Marieke) Huisman (f), UT – Formal Methods and Tools
Developing reliable software remains a major challenge. Modern programming languages allow a program to take different execution steps in parallel, which increases the risk of errors. The Mercedes project develops new techniques that enables software developers to reason about the desired program properties, thus making software more reliable.

Dark matter at the LHC
Dr W.D. (Wouter) Hulsbergen (m), Nikhef
Scientists are deeply puzzled by the movement of stars in the sky. Galaxies seem surrounded by a cloud of 'dark matter' that pulls at stars but remains otherwise invisible. In this study physicists look for traces of dark matter in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva.

Cold Opto-Magnetic Switching at the Edge of Time
Dr A.V. (Alexey) Kimel (m), RU – Institute for Molecules and Materials
Spins (elementary magnets) in magnetic materials are strongly coupled by the exchange interaction – one the strongest quantum forces. Here we aim to develop methods to control this force by light. Through this research we hope to achieve the fastest possible and the most energy efficient magnetic data storage.

Microbial electricity: a surprise from the seafloor
Dr F.J.R. (Filip) Meysman (m), UvA – Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics
In the seafloor bacteria are present that generate electrical currents over long distances, and this dramatically influences the ecology and geochemistry of the seafloor. This Vici project will elucidate how this newly discovered 'electrical biosphere' functions. This research may eventually lead to entirely new conducting materials and bio-electrical applications.

Greener medicines
Prof. G.J. (Gerrit) Poelarends (m), RUG – Chemical and Pharmaceutical Biology
Gamma-aminobutyric acids represent abundantly prescribed drugs, which are broadly applied as anticonvulsants, antidepressants and for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this VICI project, the researchers will develop novel enzymatic synthesis routes for the greener, more sustainable and more step-economic production of these important pharmaceuticals.

Small RNAs with a large impact on virus spread
Dr R.P. (Ronald) van Rij (m), RadboudUMC
Mosquitoes transmit important viral pathogens, such as the Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses. The immune system of the mosquito recognizes viral RNA and degrades it into small RNAs. The scientists will study unexpected novel functions of small RNAs in gene regulation and inheritance of antiviral immunity.

Does medication breed weak animals and vicious parasites?
Dr J. C. (Jacobus) de Roode (m), UvA – Faculty of Science
Humans routinely use drugs to treat their own diseases and those of their agricultural animals. But what are the long-term consequences for health? The researchers will study monarch butterflies, which use medicinal plants to fight their parasites, to ask whether drug use leads to weakened immunity and more severe disease.

Making Majestic Mountains
Dr W.P. (Wouter) Schellart (m), VU – Earth Science
The biggest mountains on Earth, the Andes and Himalaya, formed over tens of millions of years. The forces responsible for building these mountains remain unclear. This proposal will investigate the role of subducting tectonic plates and deep mantle flow in constructing and shaping these spectacular mountain ranges.

Antimatter matters
Dr N. (Niels) Tuning (m), Nikhef
How do quarks 'feel' each other? Elementary particles 'feel' each other by exchanging force particles, or through the recently discovered Higgs boson. The Higgs boson gives mass to the particles, but is also at the source of small differences between matter and antimatter. Is this the key to better understand the Universe?

SUMO wrestling drives cell division
Dr A.C.O. (Alfred) Vertegaal (m), LUMC – Molecular Cell Biology
Communication in cells occurs via complex modification of proteins by chemical modifications and small proteins. These modifications regulate cell division in an intriguing interplay that will be investigated in this project. Novel insight obtained could be instrumental to develop novel anti-cancer therapies.

Social Sciences and Humanities

Today's youth is tomorrow's workforce
Prof. U. (Ute) Bültmann (f), RUG – Health Sciences
Today, young workers have to deal with changing work and labour markets. Maintaining a healthy working life is important for individuals and society. The researchers will assess mental health and work challenges with a life course lens to support young people transitioning into work and to facilitate a healthy working life.

Signing across borders
Dr O.A. (Onno) Crasborn (m), RU – Centre for Language Studies
Each country has its own sign language. Yet deaf people can communicate with signers from other countries with remarkable ease. Why is this so? We will try to investigate how successful they actually are, and which strategies both deaf people and interpreters use to achieve successful communication across linguistic borders.

From gloomy to cheerful
Prof. P.M.A. (Pieter) Desmet (m), TUD Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering
Why do some products have a positive and others a negative influence on our mood? This project will investigate how products and spaces can be designed to actively contribute to a positive mood.

The power of expectations
Prof. A.W.M. (Andrea) Evers (f), UL – Health, Medical and Neuropsychology
Insufficiently explained somatic symptoms are highly prevalent and have a major impact on patients and society. This project studies the role of negative expectations in the onset, course, and recovery of such somatic symptoms, by means of innovative psychological and neurobiological methods and treatments.

The curious case of autism and aging
Prof. H.M. (Hilde) Geurts (f), UvA Psychology
With increasing age, people's cognitive skills decline. How fast this occurs, differs among people and depends on a variety of factors. Whether having autism is a risk-factor for accelerated aging or a potential protective factor is unknown. In this project this will be tested and influential factors will be determined.

Dealing with Disasters in the Netherlands. The Shaping of Local and National Identities, 1421-1890
Dr L.E. (Lotte) Jensen (f), RU – Language and literature studies
Disasters have a major impact on societies. They are not only destructive, but also create communal bonds. This project investigates how local and national identities were shaped in response to natural disasters in the Netherlands, starting with the St Elisabeth’s Flood of 1421 and ending with the Severe Winter of 1890.

The parenting origins of prejudice
Prof. J. (Judi) Mesman (f), UL – Institute of Education and Child Studies
Children often have the same opinions and prejudices about groups of people as their parents. There are indications that parents transmit these consciously and unconsciously. However, we do not know how this transmission works exactly. In this project we investigate how ethnic prejudice is taught through parenting.

Visual scanning from the corner of the eye
Prof. C.N.L. (Christian) Olivers (m), VU – Experimental and Applied Psychology
Humans can effectively scan their visual environment. Visual scanning is largely determined by peripheral vision – that is, what we can see from the corner of the eye. This program investigates the relationship between peripheral perception and visual scanning in both behaviour and brain.

Cities of refuge: local governments and the human rights of refugees in Europe
Prof. B.M. (Barbara) Oomen (f), UU – Law, Economics and Governance
International human rights law and local governments. The refugee crisis poses large challenges upon cities, which respond very differently. This is why 'Cities of Refuge' investigates the potential meaning of human rights for how cities throughout Europe welcome and integrate refugees. This strengthens these processes, and innovates human rights research.

The stopwatch in our brains
Prof. D.H. (Hedderik) van Rijn (m), RUG – Psychometrics & Statistical Techniques
Optimal human behavior strongly depends on the accurate estimation of short intervals. Yet, scientists don't know how the stopwatch in our brain functions. In this project, scientists will construct a computer-model of our brain and explain how we can utilise time for optimal behavior, and how to become better timers.

Citizenship Discourses in the Early Middle Ages (400-1100)
Dr H.G.E. (Els) Rose (f), UU – Institute for Cultural Inquiry
'Citizenship' is usually associated with cities or states, less so with the early medieval West. Nevertheless, citizenship discourse is found in the post-Roman world in sources that express changing social and cultural identities, where the terminology rooted in ancient citizenship discourses underwent a radical change of meaning.

Mind the Body in Healthcare
Dr J. (Jenny) Slatman (f), UvT Humanities
Because healthcare considers the body mainly in terms of a biological thing, various embodied dimensions of health problems go off the radar. Somatic problems are often given psychological explanations and mental problems are increasingly seen as brain deficiencies. This project will develop a broader view on embodiment.

Monitoring Evidential Flow: New Bayesian Methods for Medicine and Psychology
Prof. E.-J. (Eric-Jan) Wagenmakers (m), UvA - Department of Psychological Methods
Innovative research deserves a coherent statistical analysis. This proposal aims to develop and disseminate new coherent analyses with important applications in medicine and psychology. Coherent analyses allow doctors and researchers to quantify evidence and monitor its flow as the data accumulate.

Health Research and Development

It takes two to communicate: Voice perception and linguistic content
Prof. D. (Deniz) Başkent (f), UMCG – Ear, Nose and Throat
Talking is what makes us human, but hearing impairment can lead to long-term loss of the ability to hear others' voices. While this is often seen as a disability, in this project we use the effects of hearing impairment to investigate the value of voice perception in speech communication.

Sarcoma modelling towards patient specific treatment
J.V.M.G. (Judith) Bovée, M.D., Ph.D. (f), LUMC – Pathology
Sarcomas are rare cancers that are difficult to diagnose and treat, as >50 different subtypes are recognised. Molecularly, three main genomic mechanisms are distinguished. Therefore, three functional cell-of-origin based models will be generated. The identified crucial pathways will be manipulated in patient derived tumor tissue, to explore possibilities for therapy.

The right treatment for the right patient
Prof. A.I. (Anneke) den Hollander (f), RadboudUMC Ophthalmology
The most common cause of vision loss is age-related macular degeneration. For different subgroups of patients an eye-on-a-chip will be developed to realistically mimic the disease. The device can be used to test new drugs, and in the future will help to give the right treatment to the right patient.

How we shape our children's brains. From early life adversity to adolescent depression
Prof. H. (Henning) Tiemeier (m), EMC – Child Psychiatry
Many children experience adversities such as harsh parenting, neglect, or bullying. The researchers follow more than 4,000 children from fetal life forward to examine if negative experiences change brain development and whether this leads to adolescent depression. The researchers also test which supportive factors buffer adversities.